Interest in EVs has waxed and waned over the years, but the last ten years have seen a momentous surge in the market, which appears set to transform the automotive industry.

The International Energy Association (“IEA”) has examined this market growth in its recent report entitled “Global EV Outlook 2017: Two million and counting”.1 In here it cites the following headline statistics:

  • The global electric car stock surpassed 2m vehicles in 2016, although in reality the majority of sales are only taking place in a limited number of countries.
  • A new record of registrations of EVs was achieved in 2016, with over 750,000 sales worldwide.
  • China was by far the largest market in 2016, accounting for 336,000 of the EVs registered in 2016. This was more than double the number of registrations in the US, the second largest market.
  • In terms of market share, Norway is incontestably the global leader with 29% of its total passenger light duty vehicle (“PLDV”) sales being registered as EVs. China’s vast EV stock constitutes only 1.5% of its total PLDV sales. These were two of only six countries to achieve an electric car market share of above 1% of their total PLDV sales.

However, there has been a slowdown in market growth rates in recent years which has been linked to the removal of government subsidies. Whilst it was expected that, in-line with all emerging markets, growth rates would ultimately inevitably decline, the EV market still seems a million miles away from the potential scale it could achieve, with EVs representing just 0.2% of the total number of PLDVs in circulation globally2.

Drivers of EV market growth

Tackling climate change

Global framework

Climate change is a significant driver in the development of EVs. The Paris Agreement, which came into force in November 2016, brings a large number of nations together in the pursuit of reducing greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions and limiting global warming to well below 2°C. The Agreement requires all parties to declare “nationally determined contributions” (“NDCs”), which embody efforts by each country to reduce national emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change.

EVs have the potential to be instrumental in enabling countries to meet their NDC targets. Electric motors are more efficient than combustion engines and this, coupled with the transition to lower-carbon electricity generation mixes, is how EVs can contribute to the reduction of carbon emissions. This is recognised and demonstrated in the EU’s transport-related measures outlined below, which have been put in place to help it achieve its NDC goals of reducing emissions by 40% below 1990 levels by 2030 and 80% below 1990 levels by 2050:3

  • The 2009 Renewable Energy Directive requires member states to ensure that at least 10% of transport energy consumption is derived from renewable sources by 2020.
  • The 2009 Emission Performance Standards Regulation requires car manufacturers to achieve a certain average emissions level across the new vehicles they sell and to make available to consumers information about the emission performance of their vehicles.
  • The 2009 Clean Vehicles Directive requires public bodies in Member States to consider fuel consumption and pollutants when procuring road vehicles.
  • The European Commission’s 2011 Single European Transport Area white paper sets a target of a 60% reduction in transport GHG emissions by 2050 (by 1990 levels).
  • The 2014 Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive requires member states to put in place national policy frameworks for the development of the market for non-fossil fuels in the transport sector, including the provision of adequate EV charging infrastructure in developed areas.
  • The European Commission’s 2016 Strategy for Low-Emission Mobility summarises at a high level its focuses for legislative development and the application of support funding in relation to the transition to sustainable transportation. Such focuses include the efficiency of taxation and price signals, the evolution of emission performance standards and the improvement of vehicle emissions testing to regain consumer trust. Building on this, more rigorous vehicle emissions testing standards, including testing in real driving conditions, were imposed in September 2017; in November 2017, the Commission proposed a 30% reduction of the EU’s mandatory average emissions levels for manufacturers of light vehicles by 2030.4

The NDCs of other major polluting nations demonstrate varying levels of ambition: China has committed to a 60% reduction in GHG emissions from 2005 levels by 2030, whereas India is targeting 33%, and Russia is aiming for a 25% reduction in GHG emissions from 1990 levels by 2030. The US has formally notified the UN of its intention to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, but the target it had previously set was a 26% reduction in GHG emissions from 2005 levels by 2025. China, India, Japan and the US (unlike the EU) included specific transport emissions measures in their NDCs, including fuel efficiency improvements and alternative fuel promotion.

Policy implications

  • Announcements from the UK5 and French6 governments that the sale of new conventional petrol and diesel vehicles will be banned by 2040, and a more ambitious deadline from India’s energy minister7 of 2030;
  • Measures that encourage take up of EVs in large cities (e.g. Paris, London, Mexico City, Stuttgart, Tokyo) including the banning or restricting of polluting vehicles, or imposing charges for such vehicles, entering specified city zones.
  • Financial incentives for the purchase of new EVs, along with a range of tax and access benefits for ownership, across larger European economies. Norway and the Netherlands are leading the way on incentives, with special measures including nationwide toll exemptions in Norway and an urban charging point development regime led by resident applications in Amsterdam.
  • The tightening of vehicle emissions standards. The EU is currently ahead of the rest in this respect, but the US and Canada are phasing in even more stringent standards. The standards in China and India are less demanding, though plans are in place in both jurisdictions to catch up to the EU.

China’s remarkable EV sales growth is largely attributable to promotional measures such as sizeable purchase subsidies, large-scale charging infrastructure funding and restrictions on registrations of combustion-engine vehicles. However, the market is already showing signs of over-reliance on subsidies, with a precipitous fall in sales linked to subsidy reductions in early 2017.

Consumer demand

Increasing affordability

At present, EVs are generally more expensive to purchase their conventionally powered counterparts, but the gap is closing. In May 2017, the Financial Times (“FT”) reported on a UBS analysis that forecast cost parity between EVs and conventional gas and diesel vehicles as early as 2018 in Europe, by 2023 in China and by 2025 in the US.8 In September 2017, the FT reported on Bloomberg research that predicted “tumbling battery prices” would make EVs cheaper to buy than conventional vehicles in most countries by 2025–29, leading to EVs making up more than half of new car sales worldwide by 2040.9

Consumers are also attracted by the comparative cheapness of EVs to run and maintain: while the price of diesel and petrol continue to increase, the cost of charging an electric car from the mains is negligible by comparison; EVs contain many fewer moving parts than combustion-engine vehicles.

Media attention  In terms of technology, the following were key milestones in the increase of public interest in EVs:10

1. The release of the Toyata Prius in Japan in 1997 and worldwide in 2000 which became the world’s first mass-produced (and subsequently best-selling) hybrid EV;

2. The announcement by Tesla in 2006 that it was starting production of luxury electric sports cars that could go more than 200 miles on a single charge.

Since Tesla’s announcement, automakers have steadily increased their EV offerings and it is reported that today there are now more than 60 plug-in electric and 60 hybrid models available. In 2017, many of the world’s largest automakers (including VW, Toyota, General Motors, Renault-Nissan and Ford) announced ambitious targets for investment in and sale of electric models.

Climate change is also an ever-growing presence in the headlines.


While deployment of EVs could alleviate a number of environmental concerns, mass uptake and market saturation will bring with it its own set of challenges.

Charging infrastructure

Range anxiety is one of consumers’ key fears when considering switching to an electric vehicle. Charging infrastructure will need to keep pace with the growing number of EVs. Businesses across electricity markets will need to take into account the impact of the additional capacity required from each country’s grid. A rapid increase in demand for electricity from the grid is not a foregone conclusion; it is possible that demand from the grid could decrease as businesses and domestic consumers forge their own charging solutions, whether by means of embedded generation or energy storage.


Batteries have been a significant obstacle in the wider deployment of EVs to date and represent a large proportion of their cost. Battery characteristics including energy density, longevity and charge time impact greatly on the range and performance of EVs. Manufacturers have made significant improvements in these areas, but there is still a way to go to achieve value parity with vehicles with combustion engines, especially for heavier vehicles.

The table below sets out the types of batteries currently used in EVs:

Despite the various problems with current battery technologies, automakers have largely eschewed hydrogen fuel cells. Compared to batteries, fuel cells would have the benefits of being smaller, lighter and instantly rechargeable; but they are currently much further from economic viability than batteries. Instead, new battery types are currently in development, with both “solid state” and “lithium air” batteries promising further gains in the crucial variable of energy density.

Policy, regulation and other legal issues

As previously indicated, the EV market is heavily reliant on policy support in respect of both EVs and charging infrastructure. Policy tools currently in use include purchase subsidies, research, development and deployment measures, fuel economy standards, mandates for automakers to sell a set portion of zero-emission vehicles, and access restrictions. It is thought that policy support will remain indispensable, at least in the medium term; however, as EVs become more cost competitive and economics takes the driving-seat, policy adjustments may be required.

Cohesive regulatory frameworks for EVs are not well-established. To prepare for the universal electrification of roads, there is likely to be a need for national legislation on a broad range of issues, including vehicle licensing and taxation, vehicle and charging standards and the smart management of grid demand.


The increase in deployment of EVs creates a wealth of opportunities for developers, investors, automotive manufacturers, electricity generators, supply chains, network operators, energy suppliers, consumers, infrastructure owners and developers, and other electricity and automotive sector participants. In fact, the market potential is drawing in participants from other sectors too, including UK technology company Dyson, which has recently announced its £2 billion project to develop and build EVs from scratch, which it claims will bring more inventive designs to the market.11

About this guide

The CMS Energy group is passionate about developments that impact the EV industry. We strive to constantly be on top of R&D, engage in constructive dialogue and help our clients manage the challenges and opportunities brought by change. This e-guide is our approach to help our clients, whether they are battery or vehicle manufacturers, EV infrastructure providers, network or supply businesses, get acquainted with EV developments across the world to help with their investment and growth decisions. We started with a chapter on developments in the UK and continue to update it monthly with chapters from other jurisdictions across Europe, Asia, the Middle East and Latin America.


While Bulgaria’s business is exploring the EV market and the opportunities it offers, the Bulgarian Government faces a lot of changes if it is to make this segment attractive to the wider population.

1. What EVs have been deployed in your jurisdiction to date?

EVs represent a small proportion (0.5%) of the vehicle fleet in Bulgaria, according to official data from the European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association (ACEA). As there were no battery electric cars registered in the first quarter of 2017, the amount of “ultra-low emission vehicles” for this period comprises plug-in hybrids and hybrids only.

2. Is there any specific legislation for/regulation of EVs in your jurisdiction?

The National Plan for the Actions for the Promotion of the Production and Enhanced Implementation of Ecologic Motor Vehicles, including Electricity Mobility in the Republic of Bulgaria, was adopted for the period 2012-2014. 

An inter-governmental work group was created last November to develop a national work programme together with a road map for developing electricity mobility in Bulgaria up to 2025, with an extended horizon of 2030.

A number of legislative changes were introduced to the primary and secondary legislation. These were aimed at providing tax and other benefits for the owners of EVs, developing the infrastructure and promoting investments in the sector. 

The Acts and regulations affected include: the Local Tax and Fees Act3; the Road Traffic Act4; the Spatial Development Act5; and the Ordinance for the Design of the Communication-Transportation System of the Urbanized Territories6.

3. What measures promote EVs in your jurisdiction?

3.1 The National Trust Eco Fund manages the Climate Investment Project and the Promotion of the Use of Electric Vehicles Programme. The programme provides grants for projects connected to promoting the use of EVs by public authorities. The Minister of Environment and Waters distributes the funds to state and municipal institutions. 

The focus is on vehicles that may be used for public service activities, including: cleaning; maintenance of parks; social services; inspections; and ensuring the provision of in-town public transport in small settlements with small passenger flows.

The list of EVs eligible for purchase under the programme has been significantly expanded.

The subsidies are:

  • per medium class M1 (vehicles with up to 8 seats) and N1 (cargo vehicles with a permissible maximum weight of up to 3,5 tons) EV – BGN 20,000
  • the small L7e – BGN 20,000
  • minibuses – BGN 40,000
  • class M1 and N1 (6+ 1 and 7+ 1 seats) – BGN 30,000
  • up to BGN 3,000 for the purchase of various types of superstructures for cleaning, cargo transportation, and watering the small L7e.

3.2 Incentives for EV owners (natural persons or legal entities) include: (i) preferential tax treatment and (ii) no fees for parking in paid areas. The owners of electric cars, motorcycles and mopeds – as well as electric vehicles in categories L5e, L6e and L7e specified in art. 4 of Regulation (EU) No. 168/2013 – are exempt from paying annual local tax for these vehicles. An electric vehicle is defined as a passenger vehicle with a purely electric powered motor that does not have an internal combustion engine. EV owners do not pay for parking in the paid areas of the cities of Sofia, Plovdiv and Burgas.

3.3 The network of chargers and charging stations in the country has expanded rapidly in recent months. Sofia’s municipality is planning to add 64 extra points in the capital for the placement of charging stations. One of the major petrol station chains in the country recently announced that is planning to put 16 charging points for fast charging of EVs across its national network during the first quarter of 2018. The first two are already in operation.

4. Who are the main entities (e.g. developers, government, System Operator) and what are their roles in the deployment of EVs in your jurisdiction?

In addition to government, the following business organisations are leading players in Bulgaria’s EV market:

  • EVIC – Electric vehicles industrial cluster – its main aims include: establishing a national charging infrastructure for EVs; adapting legislation and the regulatory framework for promoting the use of EVs; and industrial investment projects for technological innovation and the introduction of innovations to reduce energy intensity of transport schemes.
  • Eldrive International – its goal is to develop a user-friendly infrastructure of charging stations, covering the city areas as well as the main road infrastructure in the Balkans (Bulgaria, Romania, Macedonia, Greece, Albania).
  • SPARK – the first fully electric car sharing company which provides affordable eco-friendly mobility solutions in Sofia. The SPARK car sharing system also includes a wide network of charging stations in Sofia to ensure the availability of the necessary infrastructure.

5. What are the main challenges to further deployment of EVs in your jurisdiction? How have EV developers sought to overcome these challenges to date?

For Bulgarian consumers, obstacles to EV ownership include:

  • Price – EVs remain more expensive than combustion-driven vehicles – both the vehicles and the insurance premiums.
  • Freedom of travel – even though the charging system is growing rather rapidly, it is still not sufficient to ensure the unimpeded and easy charging of EVs throughout the country.


Croatia is increasingly interested in EV development. After a two-year break from granting incentives for the purchase of EVs, incentives for buyers will be reintroduced in 2018. Unofficial information suggests that EVs will be financed up to HRK 70,000 (approx. EUR 9,300).

1. What EVs have been deployed in your jurisdiction to date?

EVs represent a small proportion of Croatia’s licensed vehicles. Currently, there are 224 EVs, 1,843 hybrid vehicles, and 445 electric mopeds and bicycles registered in the country. However, during 2014 and 2015, subsidies of HRK 50m helped the purchase of 1,428 EVs on the Croatian market.. No incentives were available in 2016 and 2017 and EV sales slowed dramatically – only 9 EVs were registered in the first eight months of 2017. With new purchase incentives anticipated in 2018, a rise in the number of registered EVs is likely.

2. Is there any specific legislation for/regulation of EVs in your jurisdiction?

Croatia’s Act on Promotion of Clean and Energy Efficient Vehicles in Road Transport transposes into national legislation the provisions of EU Directive 2009/33/EC on the promotion of clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles.

Key programmes include: 

  • “Drive Economically” aims to stimulate the purchase of electric and hybrid vehicles – plug-in and with up to 90g CO2/km emissions – by citizens, companies and trades. The programme is implemented by the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund (EPEEF).
  • “Green Public Transport” promotes the purchase of environmentally-friendly public transport vehicles, implemented by EPEEF.
  • An eco-driving training programme, implemented by EPEEF.
  • “Green Line”, a grants programme to enable county public institutions, national parks and nature parks to purchase electric vehicles, vessels and hybrid vehicles, implemented by EPEEF.
  • The Transportation Emissions Reduction Programme for 2013-2020, prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Energy (MEE).

3. What measures promote EVs in your jurisdiction?

  • Number of charging points – there are 201 charging points across the country with plans to increase the number to as many as 345.
  • Free charging points – currently, charging points are free. This makes the system economically unsustainable and charging points will soon have to commercialised.
  • EV purchase grants – new purchase grants should be approved in early 2018.

4. Who are the main entities (e.G. Developers, government, System Operator) and what are their roles in the deployment of EVs in your jurisdiction?

As this subject matter relates to traffic, energy and environmental protection and tourism, it falls within the remit of four government ministries: (i) MEE, (ii) Ministry of Economy, Entrepreneurship and Crafts, (iii) Ministry of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure, (iv) Ministry of Tourism.

EPEEF co-finances the measures for enhancing energy efficiency in transportation through three programmes: co-financing the purchase of electric, plug-in hybrid and hybrid vehicles for citizens, companies and trades; co-financing eco-driving training programmes; and co-financing other measures for energy.

MENP prepared the Transportation Emissions Reduction Programme for 2013-2020, which complies with the Energy Strategy of the Republic of Croatia (“the Energy Strategy”). This programme outlines measures to reduce emissions from transport and aims to achieve a goal of 10% share of renewable energy sources in all modes of transport.

5. What are the main challenges to further deployment of evs in your jurisdiction? How have EV developers sought to overcome these challenges to date?

There are three main challenges: the network of charging points, the price of electricity, and keeping up with international eco-standards and obligations.

The network of charging points is the key infrastructural problem – a good charging network is an important infrastructural prerequisite for further development and deployment of EVs. Most Croatian cities and municipalities have charging points, but there are almost no charging points on the motorways. In the years to come, tourists will be increasingly coming to Croatia with EVs, and if the infrastructure is underdeveloped, Croatia’s tourism may suffer.

A further problem with the existing charging point system is that it is economically unsustainable because, for now, it is free for users. A separate but related issue is that the price of the vehicles themselves is another important factor influencing the development of EVs in Croatia.

The price of electricity is a second major challenge. For electricity to compete with petrol, diesel and gas, the current tariff model should be redefined. Specifically, a more favourable green tariff for EVs should be introduced.

Meeting international environmental commitments is a major test for Croatia. Under the Energy Strategy, Croatia’s transport sector must use 10% renewable energy sources by 2020, up from only 3% today. By ratifying the Paris Agreement, Croatia committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2030. The EU goal is to completely exclude oil derivatives from road traffic by 2050. Despite these challenges, Croatian projections state that by 2030, about 35% of its vehicles will be electric.


The Iranian government has been working on developing and implementing plans to facilitate and encourage the use of EVs in the country for several years. With air pollution in larger cities increasingly becoming a national crisis, the motivation to speed up these plans has increased. However, numerous challenges have meant that, with very few exceptions, plans to increase the share of EVs in the market or in the public transport fleet remain unrealised.

1. What EVs have been deployed in your jurisdiction to date?

Several models of hybrid passenger cars (most prominently from Toyota, Lexus and Hyundai) have been cleared for import into the country. There is no exact figure of all hybrid cars that have been registered to date. However, the overall share of imported vehicles has not been significant, with 5,500 announced as having been imported in the period between March and December 2017, equalling 0.05% of the total number of imports. Often cars that have been brought into the country have not been registered. Electric motorcycles are slowly making their way into cities like Tehran and Esfahan following incentives offered by municipalities. In this case too, the exact number of registered vehicles is unclear. In some of these cities, pilot projects for electric vans and mini buses have also been launched.

Local manufacturers have introduced prototypes of domestically built EV cars and motorcycles, but none have begun mass production yet.

Plans to introduce EV taxis and buses have been announced, but are still not implemented.

2. Is there any specific legislation for/regulation of EVs in your jurisdiction?

Several pieces of legislation and directives contain provisions that directly or indirectly impact the importing, manufacturing and use of EVs, but there is no legislation that specifically deals with them. 

The recently-adopted Clean AirAct (2017) mandates various ministries to work together on renewing the urban public transport fleet, including through incentives for hybrid and electric vehicles and electric motorcycles. It also exempts all locally-manufactured EVs from VAT.

The Cabinet of Ministers has requested the Ministry of Industry (MoI) to prepare an action plan for manufacturing and importing EVs. The MoI subsequently introduced a plan for manufacturing EVs that prioritised the public transport fleet, and set a three-phase project for passenger vehicles to be manufactured on new and existing platforms. The MoI also proposed an initiative to offer incentives to manufacturers and consumers of EVs, which is pending adoption by the Cabinet of Ministers.

EV import tariffs – are a significant factor as they are among the few incentives available – they are also set by the Cabinet. The most recent resolution increased the previously low tariffs from 5% to 45-100%.

3. What measures promote EVs in your jurisdiction?

For imports, the main incentive offered has been lower import tariffs compared to traditional vehicles. The Cabinet increased these tariffs in December 2017. The new resolution is currently pending a review by the Court of Administrative Justice.

In line with the emphasis put on local production in the auto industry, the Clean Air Act has laid the ground for offering incentives to domestically-manufactured EVs. As a first step, domestically-manufactured EVs are exempt from VAT. But, as local manufacturing is still in the early stages, concrete incentive packages are yet to be announced.

Some cities are taking the lead by offering incentives of their own. In Tehran, EVs are exempt from traffic restrictions in the central parts of the city. The municipality is also offering loans for electric motorcycles and is planning to designate zones in the city where non-electric motorcycles will not be permitted.

4. Who are the main entities (e.g. developers, government, System Operator) and what are their roles in the deployment of EVs in your jurisdiction?

There are several entities that play a role in the deployment of EVs:

  • Department of Environment – the organisation with the general mandate to promote environmental-friendly technology and improve air quality. It is responsible for setting emissions standards and for proposing and implementing financial incentives for EVs.
  • The MoI – plays a key role in regulating both the importing and manufacturing of EVs, including supporting and incentivising the major manufacturers.
  • The Ministry of Energy – along with its affiliates, is responsible for supplying and regulating the supply of power to EVs. Current projects include providing the infrastructure for charging stations.
  • Municipalities and city councils – can and in some cases have used their authorities and funds to offer incentives for EVs. They also play a role in increasing the use of EVs in the public transport fleet of urban areas.
  • Universities and research institutes – have been active in research and design projects for EVs. The Power Research Institute (overseen by the MoI) has established a department dedicated to EVs. The institute conducts and supports research, and has been working on standard guides for EVs and their parts – the lack of which is a contributing factor for not registering EVs – and charging stations. The institute introduced a 10-year projection that foresees 2,500 charging stations, 1.2m electric cars and 600,000 electric vehicles to be in use by 2025.
  • Local manufacturers – play a role by taking steps to design and manufacture EVs.

In addition, some committees and working groups have been established to facilitate coordination among various ministries and governmental organisations.

5. What are the main challenges to further deployment of EVs in your jurisdiction? How have EV developers sought to overcome these challenges to date?

Price is a major challenge both for the use and manufacture of EVs in Iran. For imported EVs, the change in tariff incentives, in the absence of other incentives, would mean an upsurge in the price. Local manufacturing is also hampered by production costs that are unfeasible without significant government support.

In spite of years of research and several prototypes designed in Iran, mass production without the use of foreign technology and investment is still not a realistic goal.

Lack of infrastructure for charging EVs is a barrier. Plans to build charging stations in larger cities are under way, but apart from pilot projects the plans are not yet realised. The urban grid is also unable to support charging EV batteries.

Standardisation of EVs is a challenge that has prevented their registration. A national standard guide is being prepared to address this problem.

Administrative efficiency has also been a challenge. The fact that several governmental entities play a role in this area, some with overlapping authority, has slowed down the progress of legislation and its implementation.


Romania is increasingly interested in EV development. As part of its strategy to improve the quality of the environment, Romania plans to renew the national car fleet by offering substantial grants for the purchase of EVs.

1. What EVs have been deployed in your jurisdiction to date?

In the first quarter of 2017, 33 EVs and hybrid vehicles were registered in Romania1. The number of registered EVs and hybrid vehicles increased with 106.3% compared to the same quarter of 2016 when only 16 EVs and hybrid vehicles were registered.

The number of EVs increased significantly in 2017 as a result of Rabla Plus, a governmental programme that offers grants for the purchase of EVs. Although, only 33 EVs and hybrid vehicles were registered in Romania in the first quarter of 2017, the programme Rabla Plus succeeded to increase the number of EVs purchased in Romania, in 2017, to almost 500 EVs. EV and hybrid vehicles represented 2% of the total sales of vehicles in the first 11 months of 2017 – double the share recorded in 2016 – according to statistics from the Automotive Manufacturers and Importers Association (APIA).

2. Is there any specific legislation for/regulation of EVs in your jurisdiction?

Romania’s Emergency Ordinance no.40 of 20 April 2011 (the “Ordinance”) transposed Directive 2009/33/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles. The Ordinance regulates the general obligation to promote clean energy by also promoting the market of non-polluting and energy-efficient vehicles. 

Another legislative measure to encourage EVs is Law no. 34/2017 (the “Law”) on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure (it transposes Directive 2014/94/EU). The Law establishes a common framework of measures for deploying an alternative fuels infrastructure. The aim is to minimise dependence on oil and to mitigate the environmental impact of transport. It sets out minimum requirements for developing the alternative fuels infrastructure, including recharging points for electric vehicles and refuelling points for natural gas (LNG and CNG) and hydrogen. Order no. 660/2017 of the Ministry of Environment introduced the Rabla Plus programme that offers grants of up to EUR 10,000 to qualifying applicants. The grant covers up to 50% of the EV purchase price, whilst the other 50% is born by the applicants. The programme aims to grow the number of EVs and hybrid vehicles in Romania in order to reduce the carbon emissions and to mitigate the environmental impact of transport.

3. What measures promote EVs in your jurisdiction?

To promote the purchase of EV, the Romanian Government offers benefits including 

  • EV purchase grants – The Romanian EVs market is constantly growing. Between May and December 2017, the Rabla Plus programme2 approved grants for the purchase of 500 electric cars and hybrid plug-ins.
  • Tax benefits – Exemptions from the annual circulation tax (ownership tax).3
  • Charging points – There are 130 charging points across the country and there are ongoing plans to develop more at the initiative of both private and public actors.
  • Low cost energy – The cost of charging EVs is very low compared to refuelling traditional vehicles. There are also private initiatives which offer free of charge energy for the EVs at their charging points4.

4. Who are the main entities (e.g. developers, government, System Operator) and what are their roles in the deployment of EVs in your jurisdiction?

  • The Government – approved grants through the Rabla Plus programme for the purchase of electric cars and hybrid plug-ins. The Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Energy are the competent authorities involved in this programme.
  • The local authorities – are also involved in the deployment of EVs. For example, the Municipal Company of Energy was set up in Bucharest –which aims to build 40 charging points in the city by spring 2018.
  • Electricity market participants – electricity generators, suppliers and distributors.
  • Charging station developers – existing developers of the new charging infrastructure.

5. What are the main challenges to further deployment of EVs in your jurisdiction? How have EV developers sought to overcome these challenges to date?

While the EV field is starting to be strongly encouraged in Romania, there are still some obstacles to EV ownership, including: 

  • Price – EVs are more expensive than combustion-driven vehicles. For example, the cheapest EV available on the Romanian market is the Volkswagen e-Up! that costs around EUR 25,838. On the opposite side, the cheapest non-EV car is Logan, which costs around EUR 7,000, almost four times less than the cheapest EV available on the Romanian market.
  • Limited offer: – The Romanian market has a limited range of EVs – only 11 models5 – and only 8 of these can be purchased through the Rabla Plus programme6.

Charging infrastructure: Romania has only 16 public charging points of 50kW capacity. The country has a total of 130 charging points7 including further 22kW public charging points.


Ukraine has an unexpectedly high ranking among the countries promoting the use of EVs. The main reason is the rapid growth in the share of EVs among new cars bought by Ukrainians over the last few years, along with the recent introduction of tax exemptions on EV imports and sales. Further development of the charging infrastructure and the global decrease in battery prices may result in an EV miracle for Ukraine, reducing its overall dependency on oil.

1. What EVs have been deployed in your jurisdiction to date?

According to the statistics of the Ministry of Interior of Ukraine, 1,602 EVs were registered in Ukraine in 2016. However, EV registrations reached 682 in the first quarter of 2017 alone, and unofficial market data indicates that around 2,700 EVs were registered in 2017. That is approximately 4% of the total car sales.

The market leader is the Nissan Leaf, with a share of about 78%. The remainder is shared between the Ford Focus, Tesla Model S, BMW i3 and Renault Fluence.

Used imports account for around 85% of the EV market. This is not surprising, considering the high price of EVs compared to their oil-burning alternatives and the relatively low buying power of Ukrainians. However, the used cars trend also demonstrates very high interest in the EV segment, which doubtless will continue to grow following the global EV price decrease and new tax incentives for 2018.

Apart from full EVs, there is also high interest in hybrids – representing a compromise between the technology and the current lack of charging infrastructure. The most popular cars in this segment are the Toyota RAV-4 Hybrid, Chevrolet Volt and Kia Niro, not counting the National Police’s fleet of Toyota Prius and Mitsubishi Outlander PHEVs.

Public transport plays a major role in promoting EV culture in Ukraine. Historically, electricity-powered trolley buses and trams were among the most used means of public transportation in the bigger cities. Today, these vehicles are manufactured by Elektrontrans, a Ukrainian-German JV. Since 2016, Elektrontrans has also focused on the manufacturing of battery-equipped electric buses.

2. Is there any specific legislation for/regulation of EVs in your jurisdiction?

Ukraine does not have separate legislation dedicated to the regulation of EVs (e.g. road and electrical safety-related regulations, specific registration requirements, etc.). Tax and customs incentives described below are part of general legislation – the Tax Code of Ukraine and the Law on Customs Tariff.

3. What measures promote EVs in your jurisdiction?

Use of EVs in Ukraine is motivated by tax and customs payments exemptions, including: 

  • From 1 January 2016, vehicles equipped solely with an electric motor are exempt from import customs duty (8%/10%1)2.
  • From 1 January 2016, exemption from import surcharge (5%) is granted to EVs equipped solely with electric motors3.
  • From 1 January 2018 until 31 December 2018, imported and domestically-produced EVs will also be exempt from import/sales VAT (20%) and excise duty (EUR 109)4.

This means that until 31 December 2018, the only payment due on the import or domestic sales of EVs is a fee to the pension fund (3-5%). It is also likely that the temporary exemptions mentioned above will be extended after 2019.

However, apart from tax exemptions, the state has not yet developed other EV promotion strategies, which could include subsidies, grants, loans or other types of support granted to consumers, manufacturers or infrastructure developers.

4. Who are the main entities (e.g. developers, government, System Operator) and what are their roles in the deployment of EVs in your jurisdiction?

The Ukrainian EV market is mainly influenced by the following public and private actors:

  • The Parliament (Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine) – plays a key role in the regulation of any emerging market. As noted above, tax incentives are simple but highly efficient drivers of the Ukrainian EV market.
  • The Ministry of Infrastructure of Ukraine – the highest governmental body that initiates and supports legislative developments facilitating the deployment of EVs in Ukraine. The Ministry has set a target to increase the share of EV sales to 15% of all car sales in Ukraine by 2020.
  • The Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources – another top governmental body, whose responsibilities include greenhouse gas emissions trading under the terms of the Kyoto Protocol. Funds received were used to buy EVs and hybrids for the National Police.
  • Vehicle and battery importers and manufacturers – currently, only a relatively small number of electric buses are manufactured in Ukraine. VAT and excise tax exemptions may, however, change this situation. EV importers are the main players on the market so far – the vast majority of the EVs now sold in Ukraine are used imports.
  • Charging station developers – the number of charging stations in big cities is more or less sufficient for the comfortable use of EVs. However, that is not the case for small towns and rural areas. In general, there is a substantial demand for EV charging stations in Ukraine.
  • Specialised service stations operators – service stations specialising in EVs are rare in Ukraine. However, this type of service is highly driven by demand and, given the number of motor vehicle services in place, the industry is expected to boom with the wider deployment of EVs.
  • NGOs and industry bodies – including the Ukrainian Association of EVs Market Participants and the Ukrainian Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association.

5. What are the main challenges to further deployment of EVs in your jurisdiction? How have EV developers sought to overcome these challenges to date?

From a customer’s perspective, obstacles to EV ownership include: 

  • Price – EVs remain more expensive than combustion-driven vehicles. However, the price difference should be minimised by VAT and excise tax exemptions in 2018.
  • Absence of a unified nationwide charging infrastructure – even as the number of charging stations grows from year to year, especially in big cities like Kyiv, the absence of a unified nationwide charging infrastructure is an issue for prospective EV-purchasers. Some of the existing charging stations are private, designated for the use by employees of a certain company, and high-speed charging stations are rare. The vast majority of charging stations deployed are slow-speed, suitable only for overnight charging.

United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (“UAE”) is increasingly looking at ways to promote and utilise clean energy. With recent developers entering the UAE market, incentives to buy electric cars and a push towards these clean energy initiatives, the UAE is looking to establish itself as a leading regional and global player in the utilisation of electric vehicle technology. Of the seven Emirates, which form the UAE, Dubai is the most vocal and advanced in their support for this technology.

1. What EVs have been deployed in your jurisdiction to date?

As at August 2016, it was reported that there were 200 electric vehicles registered. Since the opening of the Tesla showroom in Dubai in June 2017, there has been an increasing governmental push to encourage individuals to buy electric cars over a conventional petrol model. A more recent development has been the introduction of “UberONE” service, which offers Uber customers an opportunity to be driven by one of 50 Tesla ModelX cars as well as some of the car rental companies offering electrical cars such as Renault Zoe with the added benefits of free charging and no road tolls. We are aware to date that other than Tesla, the main developer of electric cars in the UAE includes Renault, Mitsubishi and Toyota. The Emirates of Dubai has also set an ambitious target of having 40,000 electric vehicles registered by 2030.

2. Is there any specific legislation for/regulation of EVs in your jurisdiction?

The Emirates Authority for Standardisation and Metrology have recently prepared draft legislation to regulate the sale and use of electric vehicles. This has resulted in other GCC countries using this draft legislation as the basis of producing their own regulations.

The UAE has implemented the UAE Energy Strategy 2050, which aims to increase the contribution to clean energy by 50% by 2050. It will also aim to ensure there is an energy mix that combines renewable, nuclear and clean energy sources to meet the UAE’s economic requirements and environmental goals. This strategy will be implemented in three phases. Phase one will accelerate efficient consumption of energy, the second phase shall explore new solutions to integrate transportation solutions with energy and the final phase will focus on research and development to supply sustainable energy. The Supreme Council of Energy issued in March 2017, the Dubai Administrative Decision No.1 of 2017 in respect of the establishment and installation of charging stations for electric vehicles in Dubai. This requires all organisations, whether private or public and any developers in Dubai to get approval from Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (“DEWA”) before they are permitted to install, operate or maintain any charging station. This decision was implemented to continue the ongoing commitment to the Dubai Clean Energy Strategy 2050, which aims to ensure Dubai, has the lowest carbon footprint in the world. This is also in parallel with the Dubai Carbon Abatement Strategy to reduce 16% of carbon emissions by 2021. Private owners of electric vehicle charging stations in Abu Dhabi must seek approval from the Abu Dhabi Distribution Company on the viability of facilities, which includes the Abu Dhabi Distribution Company inspecting the facilities prior to these being utilised.

We are aware that the following charging stations are available across the UAE:

3. What measures promote EVs in your jurisdiction?

To entice individuals to purchase electric vehicles, Dubai has recently announced the following new incentives: 

  • free parking in certain areas;
  • toll exemptions;
  • discounts on registration fees;
  • free charging stations; and
  • greenbank loans.

Individuals who purchase an electric vehicle in Dubai will be able to park free in designated areas including Madinat Jumeirah, Jumeirah Beach Residence and Dubai International Airport. There are currently 40 parking spaces designated for electric vehicles with more to be added in the near future. With the purchase of an electric car, each driver will be entitled to a fee exemption to each of the seven tollgates and to a 15% discount on all car registration and renewal fees. Greenbank loans were also implemented in May 2017 to make purchasing electric cars more accessible to both the public and private organisations.

At present, there are not Federal level incentives which apply UAE wide and it is for each individual Emirate to establish and implement their own plan.

4. Who are the main entities (e.G. Developers, government, System Operator) and what are their roles in the deployment of EVs in your jurisdiction?

As noted above, DEWA are responsible for the installation of charging stations in the Dubai. Green Parking work closely with DEWA and their role is to physically implement and develop such charging stations. RTA has played a key role in electric vehicles by already purchasing from Tesla a fleet of 200 electric vehicles to operate as part of their taxi fleet from Dubai Airport. In September 2017, RTA took delivery of 50 of the 200 electric vehicles, with another 75 expected in 2018 and a final 75 in 2019. Dubai Future Foundation are an organisation in the Dubai who are responsible for electric vehicles. One of their key initiatives is under the Dubai Autonomous Transportation Strategy, which aims to transform 25% of the transportation in Dubai to autonomous mode by 2030. The Dubai Future Foundation work closely with the Dubai Smart Government whose primary role is to look at implementing regulations on electric and self automated cars and driving initiatives on street planning for such vehicles.

5. What are the main challenges to further deployment of EVs in your jurisdiction? How have EV developers sought to overcome these challenges to date?

The climate of the UAE proposes many challenges to the successful implementation of electric vehicles. Firstly, the extreme heat can greatly effect battery life. Tesla notes that their Model S can travel 632 kilometres on full charge, with Model X following closely at 565 kilometres. However, this is based on driving without air conditioning and does not account for the sandy conditions of the UAE. Although not expressed to be a way to overcome this challenge, solar vehicles or a hybrid design could enhance battery life. Developer will also need to work on developing efficient batteries and charges given the small number of charging stations currently placed around the UAE.

A second issue is being able to provide those who live in high-rise buildings with charging stations in the car parks of their buildings. For those owners of electric vehicles who may live in a villa, the installation and space should be available to install their own private charging station, which should therefore not be an issue, unless price of purchasing and installing one is prohibitively costly. High-rise residents will have to rely on the construction buildings taking into account the installation of enough accessible charging stations within the car park for all residents. Where the buildings are not new builds. Existing owners will need to be incentivised to have these installed. With the cost of electricity being high in the UAE, free charging stations would be one way to overcome this challenge.

Petrol prices in the UAE have historically been very low. In order to incentivise individuals to move away from traditional petrol vehicles, charging electric vehicles will need to compete with these low prices. DEWA’s managing director has stated that it would be 80% cheaper to charge an electric car than fill up the tank of a petrol vehicle. To charge a Tesla X it would cost AED 29 compared to AED 150 to fill up a similar petrol model.

Public charging stations will need to have an efficient system in place to prevent unnecessary delays to their customers. Petrol stations, particularly those on main transit routes, can face delays at peak times. For electric vehicles, the process of charging will take significantly longer than filling a traditional petrol or diesel vehicle. The creation of an efficient, publically accessible and user-friendly charging infrastructure will be essential. The government will need to ensure charging stations are located near retail spaces such as malls, supermarkets, banks, restaurants and fast food chains, and leisure facilities to allow drivers to go about their everyday lives whilst allowing their vehicles to charge at the same time.

United Kingdom

The UK shows significant potential in EV development. It is the second largest automotive manufacturing hub in Europe, with a comparatively large consumer base for road vehicles and a wealth of innovation from its world-class universities.

1. What EVs have been deployed in your jurisdiction to date?

Electric vehicles currently represent a small proportion of the vehicles licensed in the UK:

However, market share is increasing. In 2016, the UK was one of only six countries worldwide in which sales of electric passenger light-duty vehicles exceeded 1% of sales of all such vehicles.3 August 2017 was the first month in which pure electric cars represented over 2% of total UK new car registrations (with hybrids contributing a further 3%).4

2. Is there any specific legislation for/regulation of EVs in your jurisdiction?

The UK Government announced a new Air Quality Plan in July 2017, including a commitment to ban the sale of new petrol and diesel cars and vans by 2040. The plan also included GBP 255m in additional funding for local councils to produce and implement nitrate pollution reduction plans, funded through changes in tax treatment for new diesel vehicles. Further revisions to the plan are expected following a judgment of the High Court in February 2018: the current plan has been declared unlawful on the basis that it is “not sufficient”to bring the areas suffering from the worst nitrate pollution within EU law limits.

Vehicle manufacturers have been subject to tougher “real world” emissions testing requirements since 1 September 2017. The government has also had a Motor Fuel Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting regime in place since 2013, requiring large-scale suppliers of road transport fuel to report to the Department for Transport on the quantity and types of fuel it supplies and the greenhouse gas intensity of each type.

A key upcoming piece of legislation is the Automated and Electric Vehicles Bill, which was considered by a public bill committee in November 2017. The Bill introduces powers for the government to issue regulations for the improvement of the country’s charging infrastructure by e.g. ensuring interoperability between all public EV charging points, forcing large fuel retailers to provide rapid charge points and requiring that all new public charging points be smart enabled.

Scotland has indicated its intention to lead the way on electric vehicles and achieve the phase out of new petrol and diesel cars and vans by 2032, well ahead of the UK target. Proposed new legislation for 2018 outlines plans to achieve this goal by measures including fast-tracking the development of a Scotland-wide charging network, converting the A9 into Scotland’s first ‘electric highway’ and procuring ultra-low emission vehicles to update public sector car, van and bus fleets.5

3. What measures promote EVs in your jurisdiction?

The government is investing in EV promotion and infrastructure. The Department for Transport and Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy have set up a dedicated Office for Low Emission Vehicles (“OLEV”), which has been given a GBP 900m investment mandate to keep the UK at the forefront of ultra-low emission vehicle technology. The government also has a range of further investment programmes in place, including a GBP 246m investment in its “Faraday Challenge” to boost expertise in battery technology; a GBP 20m investment in “vehicle to grid” infrastructure (as part of the government’s July 2017 Smart Systems and Flexibility Plan); and a recent award of GBP 40m shared among four UK cities with innovative EV infrastructure proposals (as part of the government’s “Go Ultra Low” scheme).

The government’s Clean Growth Strategy on 12 October 2017 reaffirmed all these investments, while committing a further GBP 80m to investment in charging infrastructure. Further, in the 2017 Autumn Budget, the chancellor announced measures including a GBP 200m investment (to be matched by the private sector) into a new Charging Investment Infrastructure Fund. In his October 2017 Cost of Energy Review, Professor Dieter Helm observes that EV charging infrastructure is “a textbook example of the need for government coordination” and called for a framework to be included in the government’s Industrial Strategy. The strategy white paper published in November 2017 committed to the publication of a further “strategy on government support for the transition to zero emission road transport”,expected in March 2018.

Investments are also coming from industry sources. Ofgem, the UK National Regulatory Authority, administers a GBP 500m Low Carbon Networks Fund sponsored by distribution network operators. Projects proposed by DNOs in relation to electric vehicles have included experimentation with charging point tariffs and extensive smart metering to determine how best to reinforce distribution networks.

  • EV purchase grants – the government will pay up to GBP 4,500 towards the cost of purchasing a low emission vehicle (based on factors including CO2 emissions and distance which can be travelled with zero emissions). Taxi drivers can obtain a grant of up to GBP 7,500 for the purchase of plug-in vehicles.
  • Charging point grants – OLEV will contribute GBP 500 towards the cost of installing a home charging point (the Energy Saving Trust offers a further GBP 500); local authorities can apply to OLEV for funding for up to 75% of the cost of installing an on-street charging point in areas lacking off-street parking.
  • Various tax benefits – for example, road tax is graded by CO2 emissions. The government has also announced that, from April 2018, electricity provided by employers to their employees to charge their EVs will not be taxed as a benefit in kind.
  • HGV licensing break – the weight threshold at which an HGV licence is required is higher for electric vans than for vans with combustion engines.
  • London Ultra Low Emission Zone – ultra-low emission vehicles already qualify for a 100% discount on the London congestion charge; this exemption will increase in significance in 2019 when Sadiq Khan’s pledged additional fee for certain petrol and diesel vehicles is introduced. All newly licensed taxis are to be zero-emission capable from 2018.

4. Who are the main entities (e.g. developers, government, System Operator) and what are their roles in the deployment of EVs in your jurisdiction?

In addition to government, stakeholders in the UK EV market include:

  • Ofgem – the regulator will have a huge role in reviewing existing licence conditions for transmission, distribution, generation and supply to ensure the removal of any existing barriers to development of EVs and their supporting infrastructure. Ofgem will have a key role in engaging with all stakeholders.
  • Vehicle and battery manufacturers – Nissan is already manufacturing its Leaf model, and the batteries for it, in Sunderland; BMW has announced that it will be making electric Minis in Oxford; and Jaguar Land Rover has pledged to electrify its entire range from 2020.
  • Network owners and operators – National Grid, as transmission system owner and operator, will have to work closely with distribution network operators to ensure that investment in developing and reinforcing the networks is deployed in the most efficient way. This is a particularly challenging task as EVs will not be predictable in terms of the points at which they call on the networks.
  • Electricity market participants – electricity generators, suppliers and distributors will have to work together with the network owners to ensure that vehicular demand for electricity is managed; they may also have a part to play in the ownership, operation and marketability of charging infrastructure.
  • Charging station developers – existing developers of new charging infrastructure, including POD point, Chargemaster, EV Charging Solutions and Rolec, are likely to face increasing competition and a need to ensure a consistent level of compatibility and interoperability.
  • NGOs and industry bodies including Energy UK and the Energy Saving Trust.

5. What are the main challenges to further deployment of EVs in your jurisdiction? How have EV developers sought to overcome these challenges to date?

  • Price – EVs remain more expensive than combustion-driven vehicles.
  • Freedom of travel – while a large proportion of the car-owning population is able to charge their cars at home every night, the shortage of nationwide charging infrastructure is a major issue for prospective EV-purchasers. The ratio of public charging points to registered electric vehicles is currently 1:2,900 in the UK as compared with 1:350 in Norway. The Automated and Electric Vehicles Bill may go some way towards addressing this issue – although the introduction of vehicle-to-grid discharging measures could cause consumers concern if it leads to their being unable to control their vehicles’ charge levels.

One of the most significant challenges will be encouraging the various stakeholders listed in section 4 above to cooperate to take ownership of the necessary infrastructure and manage electricity demand. There are a number of plausible models for this, from bespoke power purchase arrangements to taking consumers entirely “off grid”.

Current regulation is also a challenge – e.g. weight-based vehicle licensing requirements discourage purchase of electric vans. Ofgem has often been overtaken by the pace of change, and there will need to be a level of flexibility and pragmatism in bringing forward changes to the licensing regime and to industry codes to open the doors to new participants in the energy sector.

Despite significant advances in battery technology in recent years, this component remains a significant limiting factor for vehicle manufacturers, especially in relation to heavy goods vehicles. Further, while it might be assumed that developments in autonomous and connected vehicles will naturally accompany the transition to EVs, they in fact present their own difficulties. Self-driving vehicles process a very large quantity of data, and consume a lot of power in the process; fully electrifying these vehicles will require further developments in battery technology to be economically viable.

The National Infrastructure Commission, in its October 2017 draft National Infrastructure Assessment, observes an additional issue for government. The transition to EVs will require a new model for taxing road use (to fund road maintenance), since fuel duty will become inapplicable and EVs benefit from vehicle excise duty exemptions.

These challenges present a broad range of opportunities for businesses across the electricity market. While the transition from petrol/diesel to electric vehicles will inevitably have a significant impact on electricity demand, National Grid has published reassurance that the media is prone to overstate this. National Grid anticipates that increase in peak power demand is most likely to be between 6GW and 18GW by 2050, with the exact increase depending heavily on electricity market development as well as consumer behaviour. System stress can be minimised by the effective roll-out of smart charging infrastructure and the complementary development of smart energy networks to smooth out the impact of the additional demand. Grid strain could be avoided entirely if charging point owners and EV drivers invest in their own generation and storage facilities.

Glossary of EV terms

  • AC Motor: an electric motor driven by an alternating current.
  • BEV: Battery Electric Vehicle: EVs that use electric motors powered by on-board batteries.
  • DC Motor: a rotary electrical motor that converts direct current electrical energy into mechanical energy.
  • EV: Electric Vehicle: uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion.
  • EVI: Electric Vehicles Initiative: a multi-governmental policy forum established in 2008 dedicated to accelerating the deployments of EVs worldwide. Members: Canada, China, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the UK and the US.
  • GHG: greenhouse gas: a gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation. Carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons are examples of greenhouse gases.
  • HEV: Hybrid Electric Vehicle: combine a normal petrol or diesel engine with an electric motor – rely on combustion and electric propulsion fairly evenly.
  • ICE: Internal Combustion Engine: an engine which generates motive power by the burning of petrol, oil, or other fuel with air inside the engine, the hot gases produced being used to drive a piston or do other work as they expand.
  • IEA: International Energy Agency: an autonomous organisation which works to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its 29 member countries and beyond.
  • NDC: Nationally Determined Contributions: a term used under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that all countries that signed the UNFCCC were asked to publish in the lead up to the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference.
  • Paris Agreement: an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change dealing with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, adaptation and finance starting in the year 2020.
  • PEV: Plug-in Electric Vehicle: can be recharged from any external source of electricity and the electricity stored in the rechargeable battery packs drives or contributes to drive the wheels.
  • PHEV: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles: have a larger battery and fall back on a smaller combustion engine less frequently than a HEV.
  • PLDV: passenger light-duty vehicle.
  • R&D: Research and Development.
  • ULEV: Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle: a vehicle that emits extremely low levels of emissions compared to others. In some jurisdictions it is defined in law and may be given tax or other advantages, or avoid restrictions or taxations imposed on high emission vehicles.