The Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee Sens. Jeff Bingaman (D-NM), the committee's chairman, and Lisa Murkowski (R-AK), the ranking Republican, are stalled in their effort to introduce CES legislation. The largest fundamental disagreement between Murkowski and Bingaman involves whether a CES would substitute or be dependent upon the EPA’s authority over regulating GHG emissions. However, that is not the sole issue of contention, the Senators are also having a difficult time deciding which energy technologies would get credit and how much credit they would get. Senator Bingaman is reportedly “considering his options,” which might entail the introduction of a bill without Murkowski’s support. Stripping the EPA of the authority to regulate GHG emissions is widely held to be vital to gaining Republican support for a bill, but Bingaman's unwillingness to negotiate on the issue is unlikely to change. The committee may hold a series of listening sessions or hearings to get additional information on the measure, but at the moment both staffs are reporting a deadlock.