On Nov. 12, the European Commission announced that it had imposed fines totaling €1.38 billion (roughly US$1.97 billion) on four European producers of car glass involved in cartel activity between 1998 and 2003. (For more details, see article on “Enhanced Pace of International Cartel Enforcement” in this issue of the Antitrust Regulator.) This groundbreaking fine comes hot on the heels of a €676 million (US$965m) fine imposed by the European Commission Oct. 1 on participants in a paraffin wax cartel. These are the first significant fines imposed since early 2007 and act as a clear and stark reminder to companies engaged in cartel activity in Europe, that the Commission remains intent on sending out a strong message that such activity will result in severe penalties. The European Commission’s press release notes the right of injured parties to seek damages for loss arising from the operation of the cartel.