The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a final rule on September 2, 2022, establishing an optional alternative renewable identification number (RIN) retirement schedule for small refineries under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program for the 2020 compliance year. 87 Fed. Reg. 54158. Small refineries that elect to use the alternative RIN retirement schedule will have to comply fully with their 2020 RFS obligations, including any RIN deficits from 2019 carried forward into the 2020 compliance year, by February 1, 2024. According to the final rule, the goal of the alternative RIN retirement schedule is to support small refineries in their transition into positions where they will be able to comply with their renewable volume obligations (RVO) on an ongoing basis. EPA notes that this will also ensure the use of renewable fuels in the United States as required by the RFS program and help provide certainty in the RFS program and fuels markets, given the “unique circumstances” as a result of its June 2022 actions, denying 60 small refinery exemption (SRE) petitions for the 2016-2021 compliance years that were still pending. The final rule was effective on September 2, 2022.