EU Guidelines for the application of State aid rules in relation to the rapid deployment of broadband networks have been adopted by the European Commission on 19 December 2012. The Guidelines provide for a reinforcement of open-access obligations and improved transparency rules. They follow on from the principles of the Commission's State Aid Modernisation Initiative, which aims at facilitating well-designed State aids targeted at market failures. They will be published in the Official Journal of the European Union in January 2013 and will come into force on the day following their publication.