As a result of its recent assessment, the European Commission has concluded that Recommendation 2005/737/EC on collective cross-border management of copyright and related rights for legitimate online music services has, indeed, had an impact on the licensing marketplace and is endorsed by a number of right-holders, rights managers and music users. The Recommendation encouraged right-holders to appoint a rights manager of choice for a territorial scope of choice, irrespective of the Member State of residence or nationality. The Commission's assessment has revealed that: (i) the market for EU-wide licensing of music for online services is a nascent market; and (ii) the market is changing, with a variety of licensing initiatives having been announced. EU-wide licensing initiatives have been announced so far by right-holders including EMI Music Publishing, Peermusic, Warner/Chappell Music and Universal Music Publishing Group.