On 12 April 2017, a joint ordinance of the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) and the Brazilian Patent and Trademark Office (BPTO) was published in the Official Gazette. This ordinance defines the roles of each entity in proceedings related to patent applications in Brazil. This new rule regulates the ANVISA’s prior approval procedure, applicable to pharmaceutical patent applications, as set by Article 229C of Federal Law No. 9,279/1996 – IPL. According to this new rule, ANVISA shall deny prior approval to patent applications contrary to public health, i.e., when the product or the pharmaceutical process claimed by the application presents a health risk. After the rejection, the applications will be forwarded to the BPTO, which will publish such rejection and the application’s definite shelving. Conversely, even when not representing a health risk, if the patent application comprises a pharmaceutical product or process considered of interest for the drug policies or pharmaceutical assistance of the National Health System (SUS), the ANVISA may issue a technical opinion, analyzing the application’s compliance with the patentability requirements. In this case, however, the ANVISA’s technical opinion will not be binding, and will have the same effects of third party submission petitions, regulated by Article 31 of the IP Law. When the BPTO does not agree with the ANVISA’s analysis, it shall issue a motivated technical opinion, justifying its disagreement. The ordinance tends to end the eventual conflicts between both entities, offering a safer regulatory environment for applicants and greater agility in the examination of patent applications in Brazil.