A grand-jury witness can’t be too cute when answering the government’s questions. The Ninth Circuit held that a witness can’t be convicted of perjury for giving a misleading but “literally true” answer. But if the jury could reasonably conclude that the witness and the government had the same basic understanding during the line of questioning, such that the “literal truth” is just an after-the-fact lawyerly contrivance, a perjury conviction will stand.