On 4 June, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) held that a national court has a duty to assess the fairness of a term in a consumer contract which it has been asked to consider, even if the consumer has not challenged the fairness of the term. This ruling emphasises the focus at a European level on consumer protection. In particular, the ECJ emphasised that the Unfair Terms Directive extends to cases in which the consumer fails to raise the term's unfairness either because they do not know their rights or because they are deterred by the cost of judicial proceedings.