Spain - Criteria for the probative value of the screenshots in criminal matters On 19 May 2015, the Criminal Section of the Supreme Court issued a judgment establishing a series of guidelines to determine the probative value of screenshots used in criminal proceedings. A judicial review was called for to adjudge the authenticity of a dialogue which occurred in the social network "Tuenti", since, according to the appellant, said dialogue could be manipulated. On this point, the Supreme Court ruled as follows: "the evidence of a bidirectional communication through any of the many instant messaging systems must be approached with all due caution. The possibility of manipulation of digital files through which this exchange of ideas is materialized, is part of the reality. Anonymity authorized by such systems and the free creation of accounts with a fake identity, make it perfectly possible to simulate a communication in which a single user relates to itself. Hence the appeal of the authenticity of any of those conversations, when they are brought to the case as printed files, shifts the burden of proof to who intends to leverage its probative appropriateness. It will be essential in this case to present expert evidence to identify the true origin of that communication, the identity of the partners and, finally, the integrity of its content". The Court also highlights the following facts: that the victim made available the password of the social network to verify its authenticity, and that a friend of the victim testified as a witness. For more information, please contact Raul Rubio, Patricia Perez, Rosario Alvarez, Ignacio Vela or Alvaro Ubeda.