The 2019 federal election is scheduled to take place on October 21, 2019. If you choose to take part, whether as an individual or an organization, there may be rules and restrictions that apply to you under the Canada Elections Act (“the CEA” or the “Act”).
This election will be the first in which the provisions of Bill C-76, the Elections Modernization Act (the “EMA”) will be in full force. The EMA, which came into force on June 13, 2019, made significant amendments to the CEA with respect to how individuals, businesses, and other entities interact with the federal electoral process in the months leading up to and during the election campaign period.
Notably, the EMA altered Canada’s third party spending limits, the rules governing how third parties may interact with political entities, and the requirements for election advertising. These new rules may apply to activities in which you plan to engage in the upcoming months.
This election law primer is intended to convey some important considerations with regard to political contributions and the revised limits on third-party spending. It is intended as general guidance only. If you have any specific questions or concerns, please contact Awi Sinha, Adam Goldenberg, Will Horne or Amanda Iarusso in our Government Law Group. We would be pleased to assist you.
Contributions to political entities may only be made by individuals who are Canadian citizens or permanent residents. This means that corporations, trade unions, associations and groups are not permitted to make contributions to political entities. Eligible individuals may make monetary or non-monetary contributions, as long as the contribution is their own. This means that individuals are prohibited from making indirect contributions, such as funds or property given to them by another person or corporation for the purpose of making a donation. Individuals are also not permitted to make cash contributions in excess of $20.
If you are contributing over $200 to a political entity, you should be mindful that your name, address, and contribution amount(s) will be disclosed publicly by the political entity or entities to which you have contributed in their financial return statements. These financial return statements are published on the Elections Canada website. If you are contributing more than $20 but less $200, then only your first and last name must be disclosed on the political entity’s financial return. Individuals can make anonymous contributions of $20 or less.
How much can Canadians contribute per year?
In 2019, eligible individuals can contribute a maximum of $1,600 per calendar year (i.e., January 1 to December 31 – the “contribution period”) to each of the following categories:
- to each registered party (e.g. you can donate $1,600 each to the Liberal Party, Conservative Party, NDP, Green Party, and the Bloc Quebecois);
- in total to all the registered associations, nomination contestants and candidates of each registered party (e.g. you can donate a total of $1,600 split up between three nomination contestants for the NDP in three different ridings, and you can also split up another $1,600 between three Liberal candidates in those same (or different) ridings, and so on);
- in total to all leadership contestants in a particular party leadership contest; and
- to each independent candidate (someone who is not a candidate of a registered party).
An amount that an individual loans to a campaign is subject to that individual’s contribution limit. In other words, all monetary and non-monetary contributions, the unpaid balance of loans made during the contribution period, and any amount of any outstanding loan guarantees made during the contribution period all count toward the individual’s annual contribution limit.
What about donated goods and services?
Eligible individuals are also allowed to make non-monetary contributions, such as providing property or services without charge or for less than their commercial value. The contribution amount is the commercial value of the property or service – typically the lowest amount usually charged for that property or service.
However, if the commercial value of the property or service is less than or equal to $200 and it is from an eligible individual who is not in the business of providing that property or service, then the contribution amount is zero. As discussed, non-monetary contributions count toward an individual’s annual contribution limit.
Can I donate cryptocurrency?
The rise in popularity of cryptocurrencies has caused Elections Canada to publish specific guidance on cryptocurrency contributions. Elections Canada has determined that a contribution of cryptocurrency is a non-monetary contribution, with an amount equal to the commercial value of the cryptocurrency at the time it is received by the political entity.
Contributions of cryptocurrency may result in the donor’s name and address being documented by the political entity, and disclosed to Elections Canada. If a cryptocurrency contribution is valued at over $200, the political entity must report the contributor’s name and address in its financial return. If the cryptocurrency contribution is $200 or less and the contributor is not in the business of selling cryptocurrencies, the contribution amount is considered zero. However, the political entity still has an obligation to record the contributor’s name in its financial return. Cryptocurrency contributions of $20 or less can be anonymous.
What if I attend or sponsor a partisan event?
You, your employer, or your employees may consider getting involved in the upcoming election by showing your support for particular candidates at fundraising events or conventions. Doing so is subject to limitations and disclosure requirements under the CEA.
If you attend a party convention or leadership convention, the fees paid to attend the convention will be counted as a contribution. The contribution amount will be the difference between the amount paid to attend the convention and the commercial value of any tangible goods or services received at the convention, such as meals or lodging. Furthermore, any amounts paid to a political entity in exchange for advertising or promotional opportunities are considered contributions; the full amount paid to the political entity is subject to the contribution limit rules. It follows that only individuals who are Canadian citizens or permanent residents may pay such amounts.
If you attend fundraising events during the campaign, you may be provided with benefits, such as a T-shirt or dinner. The contribution amount would then be the difference between the amount paid to attend the fundraiser and the fair market value of the benefit received. In certain instances, the benefit amount may be zero if the fair market value of the benefit is less than $75 or is less than 10% of the amount paid to attend the fundraiser. In this scenario, the entire amount paid to attend the fundraiser would be the contribution amount.
If a fundraising event is a regulated fundraising event under the Act, the registered party organizing the fundraiser may be required to disclose information about you to Elections Canada. These disclosure requirements include, among other things, reporting the name of the entities or persons that the fundraiser financially benefits as well as the name, municipality, province or territory, and postal code of each attendee aged 18 or older.
Corporations and interest groups (collectively, “third parties”) may want to show their support for certain political parties or candidates by organizing political events or producing campaign-related advertising. They may also want to provide their views on certain federal policies or legislative initiatives. The EMA introduced new rules respecting third party spending on regulated activities during the pre-election period and the election period.
Under the Act, a third party is generally a person or group that wants to participate in or influence elections other than as a political party, electoral district association, nomination contestant or candidate. In this context, “group” means, among other things, a group of people acting together by mutual consent for a common purpose. Two groups with related aims, such as two trade union locals of the same parent union, may both separately register as third parties. The Act includes various rules that prohibit groups from combining expenditure limits in order to circumvent the various spending limits.
In broad terms, there are two distinct features of an individual or group’s activities that determine whether or not those activities are captured by the Act and require that individual or group to register as a third party: (1) the time period in which that activity takes place; and (2) the type of activity.
Whether or not an activity is regulated under the CEA depends on when it takes place.
The “pre-election period” began on June 30, 2019. It continues until the election period.
The “election period” begins when the Governor General, on the Prime Minister’s advice, dissolves Parliament and issues the writes. It will start at least 36 days and at most 50 days before election day on October 21 — unless the election is called early, which could happen at any time.
A third party that registers during the pre-election period and that is also required to register during the election period is deemed to be registered for the election period. In other words, a particular third party will only need to register once during the election cycle.
When third parties engage in “partisan activities”, “election surveys”, “partisan advertising”, and/or “election advertising” (collectively, “registrable activities or “regulated activities”) within the pre-election period or election period, , then that third party will have to register under the Act, subject to certain caveats and conditions.
Here are some important definitions from Act that may apply to your activities if you are a third party engaging in the election:
- Partisan activities: Activities carried out by a third party during the pre-election period or the election period that promote or oppose a political party, nomination contestant, potential candidate, candidate or party leader, other than by taking a position on an issue with which the party or person is associated. Activities such as door-to-door canvassing, making telephone calls to electors, and organizing rallies are considered partisan activities. Election advertising, partisan advertising, or a fundraising activity (i.e. an activity to fundraise for the third party) are excluded from the CEA’s definition of partisan activities.
- Election surveys: Surveys about voting that a third party conducts or causes to be conducted during the pre-election period or the election period, if the survey results are used (a) in deciding whether or not to organize and carry out partisan activities or to transmit “partisan advertising messages” or “election advertising messages”, as defined below; or (b) to inform the carrying out of “partisan activities”, as defined above, by a third party or to inform their transmission of partisan messages.
- Partisan advertising: The transmission to the public during the pre-election period of an advertising message that promotes or opposes a political party, nomination contestant, candidate or party leader, other than by taking a position on an issue with which the party or person is associated. Some activities are not captured by partisan advertising, including the transmission to the public of an editorial, a debate, a speech, an interview, a column, a letter, a commentary or news, as well as the transmission of a document directly by a person or a group to their members, employees or shareholders, as the case may be.
- Election advertising: The transmission to the public by any means during the election period of an advertising message that promotes or opposes a registered party or candidate, including by taking a position on an issue with which the party or person is associated. Similar exceptions that apply to partisan advertising also apply to election advertising.
If you are taking part in any of these registrable activities, you may need to register as a third party under the CEA, as described below.
A person, corporation or group must register with Elections Canada as a third party immediately after incurring expenses:
- totalling $500 or more for registrable activities that take place during a pre-election period, or
- totalling $500 or more for registrable activities that take place during an election period.
In order to register, third parties must complete an application process which involves opening a separate bank account, appointing a financial agent and auditor, and fulfilling the disclosure requirements in the Elections Canada application form. Third parties are also required to submit updates following successful registration.
Can I donate to third parties?
Even if you are not organizing events or producing advertising, you may still choose to engage in the upcoming election by making contributions to third parties to support their regulated activities. Unlike political contributions, individuals, businesses, and other organizations are permitted to make contributions to third parties, and are not subject to any monetary or non-monetary limit on the amount of their contributions.
However, each contributor’s name and their contribution amounts must be reported in the third party’s financial returns, which are then published on the Elections Canada website.
The bottom line
Participating in an election campaign is a crucial form of civic engagement. Still, individuals as well as private entities and those who work for them should be cognizant of the potential limits on their own involvement.
If you or others in your organization will interact with politicians and political parties in anticipation of the upcoming federal election, take the time to ensure that your internal policies and procedures comply with the rules outlined above.
This post is part of our 2019 federal election series. You can access related content here.