An extract from The Intellectual Property and Antitrust Review, 6th Edition
Licensing and antitrusti Anticompetitive restraints
Consistent with the Mexican Constitution prohibition on monopolies, the FECL prohibits both absolute monopolistic practices (horizontal conduct) and relative monopolistic practices (vertical conduct).
Generally, absolute monopolistic practices constitute contracts, agreements, arrangements or combinations of these among competing economic agents, whose purpose or effect is, generally: (1) to fix prices of goods or services offered in the market; (2) to restrict supply (obligation to produce, process, distribute, sell or render only a limited or restricted amount of goods or services); (3) to create market segmentation (division, distribution, allocation or imposition of portions or segments of a current or potential market of goods and services, whether by clients, suppliers, seasons or spaces); or (4) to create private agreements in public bids or auctions.
Absolute monopolistic practices are considered per se violations; in other words, the conduct is prohibited regardless of the market power of the economic agents involved or of other circumstances.
On the other hand, relative monopolistic practices include a list of various acts or behaviours between economic agents that participate in the commercial chain (manufacturers, distributors, merchandisers, and ultimately, final costumers). Whereas absolute monopolistic practices are sanctioned per se, relative monopolistic practices are penalised only if carried out by an economic agent considered by COFECE to be dominant in the relevant market.ii Refusals to license
The IP Law governs patents, trademarks, industrial designs and other IP rights. By their nature, IP rights grant an exclusive right to their holders, who are also granted the right to license them under a contractual agreement.
Neither the IP Law nor the FECL includes specific provisions governing the terms under which an IP right shall be licensed. Thus, the Mexican legal framework does not include a particular statute or guideline in connection with what contractual arrangements in a licence agreement could specifically constitute violations or impediments to a free competition environment.
Considering the above, and in the absence of a particular statute or set of guidelines in this regard, the general prohibitions of monopolistic practices under the FECL are applicable to the licensing of IP rights. The analysis of whether a particular act or behaviour in connection with licensing, or a particular contractual arrangement is contrary to antitrust provisions should be made in the light of the specific circumstances, including among others, the market position of the licensor and licensee, the relevant market, the type of IP right subject to the licence, and the ability of the licensee to alternate options to access the specific technology, invention or right being licensed.
The FECL includes among the prohibited relative monopolistic practices the 'unilateral action consisting in refusing to sell, commercialise or provide to specific persons goods or services available and regularly offered to third parties'.
As mentioned above, the FECL does not include a particular prohibition in connection with the refusal to license IP rights as an antitrust infringement. However, conduct of this nature by a dominant participant in the market could probably be categorised as one of the relative monopolistic practices described in the paragraph above. It is clear from the statute that the prohibited conduct only includes an active 'refusal' to deal, and not a constructive refusal. Therefore, the imposition on the licensee of prohibitive royalty fees or other excessive obligations would not necessarily qualify as this type of monopolistic practice.
Conduct also characterised as a relative monopolistic practice is 'the establishment of different prices or sale or purchase conditions for different purchasers or sellers under equivalent conditions.' While this prohibition does not make specific reference to the licensing of IP rights, in certain circumstances, it is possible that conduct consisting in the imposition of an excessive licence fee (when a lower licence fee was granted to a different party) could be categorised within this prohibited relative monopolistic practice.
In any case, the prohibited conduct makes reference only to 'different prices' or 'conditions', without any reference to excessive, prohibitive or other qualifications that could automatically render the imposition of an extremely burdensome contractual condition as a vertical monopolistic practice.
Particularly with respect to patents, the IP Law governs the legal framework applicable to this type of IP right, by granting an exclusive right to exploit the patent for a term of 20 years. After the 20-year term, the patent shall become available for public use. A patent holder is entitled – as with any other IP right – to license its use to one or more third parties. As discussed above, the IP Law does not include any particular rule in connection with the terms and conditions under which these licences should be granted.
As a particular legal framework for patents, the IP Law provides for 'mandatory patent licences'. These mandatory licences may be granted to applicants by the Mexican Institute of Industrial Property (IMPI) if, after three years of the grant of a patent, the owner has not exploited it. An applicant for the mandatory patent licence must show the IMPI that it has the technical and economic skills to efficiently exploit the patent. If the IMPI decides to grant the mandatory patent licence to the applicant, the IMPI will determine the term, conditions, scope and amount of royalties applicable to this licence.
No similar mandatory licensing exists for IP rights other than patents.
This mandatory patent licence framework appears to be a response to the existing tension between two competing rights: on the one hand, the exclusive right of the patent holder to exploit its protected invention, and on the other hand, the principle that the use of inventions in the industry is in the public interest – as a means to foster innovation, and grant consumers access to the newest technologies and discoveries – and, therefore, failure of a patent holder to exploit that invention for the benefit of the industry during a certain period entitles willing third parties to do so under the mandatory patent licence regime.iii Unfair and discriminatory licensing
As discussed above, conduct by a dominant player in a relevant market consisting in refusing to license an IP right, or in the imposition of licensing conditions that are 'different' – while not necessarily excessive or prohibitive – compared with those offered to different parties, could constitute a prohibited relative monopolistic practice.
Conduct such as this may result in the imposition of monetary sanctions under the FECL, up to 8 per cent of the economic agent's revenues, in addition to potential damages directly related to the performance of the prohibited behaviour.
As discussed above, the imposition of such sanctions may only be challenged by the alleged violator through an amparo trial.iv Patent pooling
Patent pooling can be defined as 'an agreement between two or more patent owners to license one or more of their patents to one another or to third parties'.5
Mexican law does not include any specific regulation governing patent pooling. However, the IP Law generally provides for the right of a patent holder to license the patent to one or various licensees, therefore leaving the possibility open for a patent pooling arrangement. Thus, a patent pooling arrangement in Mexico would not be anticompetitive or illegal per se.
However, as a potential agreement among competitors, patent pooling arrangements should be subject to strict scrutiny, as they could eventually lead to the commission of absolute monopolistic practices; for example, if the arrangement involves price-fixing between the patent holders or other prohibited conduct categorised as an absolute monopolistic practice (see Section III.i). As discussed above, absolute monopolistic practices are considered unlawful per se.v Software licensing
Software is considered a copyright protected by the Federal Copyright Law (the Copyright Law). Under the Copyright Law, the economic rights over copyright (including software) may be licensed by its owner to third parties.
From an antitrust perspective, software licensing is not subject to any particular regulation under the IP Law, the Copyright Law or the FECL, different from the general regulation applicable to licensing of IP rights. Therefore, the restrictions described in Sections III.i to III.iii, above, are similarly applicable to software licensing for the purpose of determining the potential commission of a prohibited relative monopolistic practice.vi Trademark licensing
Trademarks are protected under the IP Law and the various international treaties entered into by Mexico. Under the IP Law, the owner of a trademark may validly license its rights to the trademark to third parties, and the licensee shall be required to pay a licence fee to the licensor. Trademark licences must be registered with the IMPI.
From an antitrust perspective, the terms and conditions of trademark licensing are not subject to any particular regulation under the IP Law or the FECL. Therefore, the restrictions described in Sections III.i to III.iii, are similarly applicable to trademark licensing for the purpose of determining the potential commission of a prohibited relative monopolistic practice.
In any case, trademarks do not grant an exclusive right over a specific product or a specific market, but rather grant their holders the exclusive right to use those trademarks as a distinction of their products or services. Given that any market participant in any industry is able to create and develop its own trademark, and that the use of trademarks per se does not restrict access to other potential entrants to a particular market, the use and licensing of trademarks appears to pose a lesser concern from an antitrust perspective.
It is interesting to mention that the IP Law enables the IMPI to declare the mandatory use of a trademark on any product or service, or even to prohibit or regulate the use of trademarks (registered or not), among others, when the use of the trademark has been associated with monopolistic practices that cause serious distortions to the manufacturing, distribution or merchandising of specific products or services.