On 29 March 2019, the UK Parliament rejected the negotiated Brexit agreement for a third time (344 votes to 286), leaving the UK two weeks to find a way to prevent it leaving the EU without a transition period or negotiated deal.

The EU had agreed to a delay until 22 May if the UK lawmakers had reached some sort of consensus going forward, but only until 12 April if no progress was made. The 12 April withdrawal will result in a “hard” exit from the EU with no transition period or protections. The 29 March vote was only on the withdrawal agreement, while the two previous votes included the political relationship with the EU as well. By only voting on the agreement itself, PM. May hoped to win over some critics. Boris Johnson and Liam Fox, both critics of the agreement, agreed to vote for it, after PM May offered to resign.