On July 16, 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) issued a lengthy proposed rule revising the requirements that long term care facilities must meet to participate in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. This is the first comprehensive revision of long term care facilities’ conditions of participation since 1991. CMS states that it revised many of the requirements to reflect current clinical practice standards, noting that innovations in resident care and quality assessment practices have emerged since the last revision. Comments on the proposed rule will be accepted until 5 p.m. on September 14, 2015.
Some of the major provisions in the proposed rule include the following.
- CMS proposes updating resident rights provisions, including addressing roommate choice. Under the proposed rule, a resident has the right to share a room with the roommate of his or her choice.The rooming arrangement could include a same-sex couple, siblings, other relatives, long term friends, or another combination as long as certain requirements are met.
- The rule proposes a new section that focuses on facility responsibilities, bringing together many of the facility responsibilities dispersed throughout the current regulations. CMS proposes to revise visitation requirements to establish open visitation.
- The rule would add a new section titled “Comprehensive Person-Centered Care Planning.” This proposal would require facilities to develop a baseline care plan for each resident within 48 hours of admission, which includes instructions about providing effective and person-centered care. This section also adds several other requirements, including expanding the required members of the interdisciplinary care team to add a nurse aide, a member of the food and nutrition services staff, and a social worker.
- While CMS considered establishing minimum nurse hours per resident day, the proposed rule does not impose minimum staffing numbers or ratios. However, the proposed rule does include some new requirements related to staffing. The proposed rule adds a competency requirement for determining sufficient nursing staff based on a facility assessment. The facility assessment includes the number of residents, resident acuity, ranges of diagnoses, and care plan contents.
- The proposed rule changes some pharmacy requirements. The rule proposes requiring a pharmacist to review a resident’s medical chart at least every six months when the resident is new, a prior resident returns or is transferred from a hospital or other facility, and during each monthly drug regimen when the resident has been prescribed or is taking a psychotropic drug, an antibiotic, or any drug the Quality Assessment and Assurance Committee has requested be included in the pharmacist’s month review. In addition, there are several proposed revisions to requirements regarding antipsychotic drugs, which the proposed rule revises to be referred to as psychotropic drugs, defined to include any drug that affects brain activities associated with mental processes and behavior.
- The rule proposes specific requirements for binding arbitration agreements, including provisions to ensure that the agreement is voluntary, not permitting admission to be contingent on signing an arbitration agreement, and not allowing arbitration agreements to prohibit or discourage a resident or anyone else from communicating with federal, state, or local health care or health-related officials.
- There are several new physical environment provisions in the proposed rule. CMS proposes that facilities certified after the effective date of the regulation accommodate no more than two residents in a bedroom and have a bathroom equipped with at least a toilet, sink, and shower in each room.
- The proposed rule adds a new section on training requirements setting out all the requirements of an effective training program that facilities must develop, implement, and maintain.
- There are also new provisions relating to laboratory, radiology, and other diagnostic services; dental services; food and nutrition services; food safety; specialized rehabilitative services; administration; quality assurance and performance improvement; and infection control.