On April 15, Susanne Hefeli-Hestvik, managing director of a Swedish carbon asset managing firm, lauded China for its progress in establishing regional pilot programs for trading carbon emissions. Shenzhen and Shanghai both recently announced that their municipal programs will begin in June, while programs in the cities of Tianjin, Beijing, and Chongqinh and the provinces of Guangdong and Hubei will launch by the end of 2013. While the programs are described as voluntary, all have guidelines that will eventually compel companies with certain pollution levels to participate. Several national Chinese governing bodies, including its Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Environmental Protection, and National Development and Reform Commission are also said to be considering carbon tax proposals, though none have been made public.