The claimant solicitor was able to rebut the presumption that his client had signed a promissory note as a result of undue influence because the client was sophisticated and experienced in dealings with property, had had opportunities to take independent legal advice and had obtained benefits from the transaction. However, the presumption was not rebutted in relation to the arrangement fee, which had not been properly explained to the client nor in relation to the very high rate of interest (Pathania v Adedeji QBD (John Bowers QC)).