ESMA has published its final report setting out technical advice under the Benchmarks Regulation in response to its May consultation. Key areas addressed in ESMA's final advice include: (i) how benchmarks’ reference values can be calculated by using data reporting structures under existing EU rules such as MiFID II and EMIR; (ii) criteria for deciding whether third country benchmarks can be endorsed for use in the EU; and (iii) what constitutes making a benchmark figure available to the public.