Economics, law and technology scholars affiliated with U.S. and German institutions have issued a paper that examines data on the costs of patent litigation, particularly as an upsurge in non-practicing entity (NPE) infringement suits have occurred in recent years, and on the licensing income, or “rents,” collected by patent owners. John Turner, et al., “The Costs and Benefits of United States Patents,” Boston University School of Law, Law and Economics Research Paper, June 12, 2013. They conclude that “costs exceed benefits overall and that the gap between costs and benefits has grown across time. Surges in the number of NPE lawsuits, lawsuits filed over Computers/Communications patents, and lawsuits brought against non-manufacturing, software and telecommunications firms contribute to the increase in the gap.”