A chemicals manufacturer was found guilty of breaching s2(1) of the HSWA following an incident where 82 litres of titanium tetrachloride escaped into the atmosphere during routine plant maintenance. The escape caused a toxic cloud to form which drifted towards the Humber estuary and shipping traffic was stopped until the cloud dispersed. It was noted that the impact of the escape was limited by the quick actions of an operator, who exposed himself to personal risk by coming into direct contact with the chemical in order to reach the shut off valve. Investigations determined that the leak was caused by a string of errors, including poor design, inadequate risk assessments and poor supervision. Millennium Inorganic Chemicals was found guilty of failing to protect staff under s2(1) of the HSWA and was fined £40k with costs of £25k. At the same hearing, Millennium was also fined £20k for breach of s3(1) of the HSWA following a separate incident where an engineer's arm was crushed whilst dismantling a bearing on a rotary vacuum filter drum. The activity was known to be hazardous, and any risk could have been eliminated by turning a drain valve. The HSE argued that this incident represented further evidence of the company's safety management failures.