At the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority, the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) has conducted a risk assessment of local adverse effects, such as skin irritation, induced by vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters) in skin care products and concluded that relevant data to accurately judge safe usage levels is insufficient. According to VKM, the use  of retinol and retinyl esters in cosmetic products had been restricted under Norwegian cosmetics regulations, with maximum allowed concentrations of0.3 percent retinol and 0.55 percent retinyl palmitate. As a result of the July  11, 2013, European Cosmetics Regulation, however, national regulation of these compounds ceased, and the Norwegian Food Safety Authority has been working with VKM to identify the upper concentrations of vitamin A that may be safely used in cosmetics in relation to the ingredients’ ability to irritate the skin. “There are not enough relevant studies with the necessary data on asso- ciation between concentrations and adverse effects in the skin to define safe upper concentrations for the use of retinol and retinyl esters (retinyl palmitate and retinyl retinoate) in cosmetics,” noted VKM in the assessment. “However, the present available data indicates that local adverse effects in human skinmay appear after application of retinol at concentrations of 0.075% and above. For retinyl esters, no conclusion can be drawn from the available data.” See VKM News Release, November 28, 2013.