A court challenge to President Obama's prohibition on federally registered lobbyists serving on trade-related federal advisory committees has been dismissed, effectively validating the ban. The complaint, filed by a group of federally registered lobbyists, was filed in September 2011 against the Department of Commerce and the Office of the US Trade Representative, the two government agencies that oversee the Industry Trade Advisory Committees (ITACs) on which the lobbyists are prevented from serving. US District Judge Amy Berman Jackson dismissed the case, ruling that the ban is constitutional and does not infringe on the First Amendment rights of lobbyists. She said the lobbyists did not demonstrate that being barred from serving on the committees resulted in the denial of a valuable government benefit, and that the policy's determination of who is subject to the ban is constitutional, as it does not distinguish between those who petition the government and those who do not. The judge noted that the ban makes a distinction between those persons whose lobbying activities trigger the lobbying registration and those who do not trigger the statutory registration requirement – a factor which the plaintiffs did not allege was constitutionally protected.