On October 27, 2014, FinCEN ruled in response to a Request for Administrative Ruling that a company that converts traditional currencies into Bitcoin to facilitate payments must comply with regulations that govern Money Services Businesses under the Bank Secrecy Act. The company at issue operates by receiving payment from a buyer or debtor in “currency of legal tender” and transfers the equivalent in Bitcoin to the seller or creditor, minus a transaction fee.

The significance of FinCEN’s ruling for such a company is that the company must engage in record keeping and reporting that would pierce a customer’s anonymity.

FinCEN held:

As a money transmitter, the Company will be required to (a) register with FinCEN, (b) conduct a comprehensive risk assessment of its exposure to money laundering, (c) implement an Anti-Money Laundering Program based on such risk assessment, and (d) comply with the recordkeeping, reporting and transaction monitoring obligations set down in Parts 1010 and 1022 of 31 CFR Chapter X. Examples of such requirements include the filing of Currency Transaction Reports (31 CFR § 1022.310) and Suspicious Activity Reports (31 CFR § 1022.320), whenever applicable, general recordkeeping maintenance (31 CFR § 1010.410), and recordkeeping related to the sale of negotiable instruments (31 CFR § 1010.415). Furthermore, to the extent that any of the Company’s transactions constitute a “transmittal of funds” (31 CFR § 1010.100(ddd)) under FinCEN’s regulations, then the Company must also comply with the “Funds Transfer Rule” (31 CFR § 1010.410(e)) and the “Funds Travel Rule” (31 CFR § 1010.410(f)).