European Court of Justice Advocate-General Juliane Kokott released a court opinion October 6 that is expected to play an important role in the international policy dispute over whether U.S. airlines will be included in the European Union greenhouse gas emissions trading system: that inclusion of U.S. airlines in the trading program is lawful. The scheme will go into effect for airlines on January 1, 2012. The 13 members of the Grand Chamber will begin their deliberation after receiving the opinion, and the court is expected to issue a decision by early 2012.