Dual-use Items and Technologies refer to such items and technologies that could be used not only for civil purposes but also military purposes. MOFCOM together with the General Administration of Customs has prescribed the Catalogue of Dual-Use Items and Technologies Subject to Import and Export License Administration (Catalogue). Any item or technology falling into the control scope is subject to the Dual-use Items License for exportation or importation. The Catalogue is distinguished from other trade lists in that the Catalogue does not always list the HS code for each controlled item. A product may still fall into the scope of the Catalogue even though the HS code of a given product is not included in the Catalogue.

The Catalogue is not the only basis for determining the scope of dual-use items though. If the exporter knows or should have known, or is notified by the relevant administrative department of the State Council that its items and technologies intended for export has a risk of being used for weapons of mass destruction and its carrying vehicles, the exporter is obligated to apply for the Dual-use Items License, regardless of whether such items and technologies are listed in the Catalogue.