EnforcementComplaints procedure for private parties
Is there a procedure whereby private parties can complain to the authority responsible for antitrust enforcement about alleged unlawful vertical restraints?
Yes. MyCC encourages complaints and has issued Guidelines on Complaint Procedures to assist complainants. Complaints must be made in the prescribed form, providing information about the complainant, the parties complained of, a description of the alleged infringing activity and include other relevant information or supporting documents. Anonymous complaints are possible but discouraged, as MyCC will not be able to seek clarification or further information from the complainant. A number of MyCC investigations have been commenced following complaints.Regulatory enforcement
How frequently is antitrust law applied to vertical restraints by the authority responsible for antitrust enforcement? What are the main enforcement priorities regarding vertical restraints?
MyCC completed its first vertical restraints case in October 2014 relating to exclusivity agreements entered into by two major providers of logistical and shipment services by sea - Giga Shipping Sdn Bhd and Nexus Mega Carriers Sdn Bhd - with their vehicle manufacturers, distributors and retailers. MyCC raised concerns that these agreements may have the effect of foreclosing customers to competitors of the enterprises, which, if established, would have the effect of significantly preventing, restricting or distorting competition in the provision of such services. To address these concerns, both parties provided several undertakings to MyCC, which included the removal of all exclusivity clauses exceeding a period of two years in their agreements with customers.
In June 2016, MyCC issued its decision against an information technology service provider to the shipping and logistics industry and four container depot operators for price fixing. The final decision states that Containerchain (M) Sdn Bhd, the information technology service provider, had engaged in concerted practices with the container depot operators, resulting in the operators increasing the depot gate charges from 5 ringgit to 25 ringgit. MyCC also concluded that the concerted practice resulted in the container depot operators offering a rebate of 5 ringgit to hauliers on the agreed depot gate charges.
What are the consequences of an infringement of antitrust law for the validity or enforceability of a contract containing prohibited vertical restraints?
The Competition Act does not mention the consequence of infringement of the prohibition on the validity of contracts. However, where the consideration for a contract is unlawful, the contract will be void and unenforceable under the Contracts Act 1950. Therefore, an anticompetitive agreement under the Competition Act will be rendered unenforceable by virtue of the Contracts Act 1950. Typically, parties to an agreement would include a severability clause, which can work to sever the anticompetitive restraint, leaving the remainder of the agreement intact. Even in the absence of a severability clause, parties may argue that they have reciprocally promised to perform obligations that are legal (eg, a distribution contract), and under special circumstances, to do certain things that are anticompetitive, thus illegal. The second set of illegal promises will be void, but the first set will remain enforceable.
May the authority responsible for antitrust enforcement directly impose penalties or must it petition another entity? What sanctions and remedies can the authorities impose? What notable sanctions or remedies have been imposed? Can any trends be identified in this regard?
MyCC may impose financial penalties once it makes a finding of infringement without reference to any other entity. Once MyCC makes a finding of infringement of the Act, MyCC:
- requires that the infringement must be ceased immediately;
- may specify steps required from the infringing enterprise, which appear to MyCC to be appropriate for bringing the infringement to an end;
- may impose a financial penalty of up to 10 per cent of the worldwide turnover of the infringing enterprise or enterprises over the period during which an infringement occurred; and
- may give any other directions as it deems appropriate.
To date, the financial penalties that have been proposed or imposed by MyCC have ranged from 20,000 ringgit to 213,450,000 ringgit. In relation to non-financial remedies, MyCC also issued directions to cartelists to refrain from anticompetitive practices. Although not all infringing enterprises have been fined with financial penalties, it appears, from recent trends, that MyCC is taking a stricter stance in terms of deterrence. The following table is a summary of infringement decisions issued by MyCC to date and the total financial penalties imposed.
Cameron Highlands Floriculturist Association
Malaysia Airlines and AirAsia
20 million ringgit in total
Ice manufacturers (24 enterprises)
252,250 ringgit in total
Sibu Confectionery and Bakery Association (15 enterprises)
247,730 ringgit in total
Containerchain (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd and four other container depot operators
654,774 ringgit in total
My EG Services Berhad*
Abuse of dominance
2,272,200 ringgit in total
*An appeal was filed to the Competition Appeal Tribunal against MyCC’s decision. The Competition Appeal Tribunal dismissed the appeal and imposed an additional daily penalty on My EG Services Berhad, resulting in a financial penalty totalling 6,412,200 ringgit.
The financial penalty is potentially higher in Malaysia than that in other jurisdictions where the penalty is limited to a specified number of years, because the penalty imposed may be for the entire duration of an infringement. Even though the magnitude of this may not be felt for a while as the Act does not have retrospective effect and hence relates back only to 1 January 2012 (the date on which the Act came into force), parties to agreements that infringe the Act remain at risk for the continued anticompetitive conduct.
On 14 October 2014, MyCC issued its Guidelines on Financial Penalties, which explain how MyCC determines the appropriate fine and the factors that it may take into account in doing so. In imposing financial penalties, MyCC aims to reflect the seriousness of the infringement and deter future anticompetitive practices. In determining the amount of any financial penalty in a specific case, MyCC may take into account aggravating factors (eg, the seriousness of the infringement, its duration, and recidivism) and mitigating factors (eg, existence of an appropriate corporate compliance programme, cooperation by the enterprise during the investigation and low degree of fault).
Financial penalties imposed by MyCC may be higher post-issuance of the recent financial penalties guidelines, as the guidelines indicate that MyCC may round up the infringement duration, whereby a period of infringement shorter than six months will be counted as half a year and a period between six months and a year will be counted as a full year. In the event that the duration of the infringement is longer than a year, MyCC may take into account a maximum of 10 per cent of the enterprise’s worldwide turnover and multiply that by the number of years of infringement. In the market-sharing case involving Malaysia Airlines and AirAsia, MyCC imposed a financial penalty of 10 million ringgit each on MAS and AirAsia, for the four months commencing immediately when the Act came into effect up to the time that the two airlines terminated the collaboration agreement. In future, MyCC may round the infringement period up to six months, resulting in higher financial penalties. Similarly, the 24 ice manufacturers on which financial penalties totalling 252,250 ringgit were imposed for price fixing, may have faced higher penalties had the case been decided today, as their worldwide turnover for six months may have been taken into account despite them infringing the Act for approximately one week only.Investigative powers of the authority
What investigative powers does the authority responsible for antitrust enforcement have when enforcing the prohibition of vertical restraints?
MyCC has wide discretion on how it collects evidence and may direct a person to give MyCC access to his or her books, records, accounts and computerised data. However, these powers are subject to lawyer-client privilege and may, at the request of the person disclosing, be protected by confidentiality. As anticompetitive conduct is not a crime, there is no privilege against self-incrimination.
MyCC may, by written notice, require any person (including third parties to the agreement) that MyCC believes to be acquainted with the facts and circumstances of the case to produce relevant information or documents. MyCC may also require the person to provide a written explanation of such information or document. Where the person is not in custody of the document, he or she must, to the best of his or her knowledge and belief, identify the last person who had custody of the document and state where the document may be found. A person required to provide information has the responsibility to ensure that the information is true, accurate and complete, and must provide a declaration that he or she is not aware of any other information that would make the information untrue or misleading.
MyCC may search premises with a warrant issued by a magistrate, where there is reasonable cause to believe that any premises have been used for infringing the Act or there is relevant evidence of it on such premises. The warrant may authorise the MyCC officer named on the warrant to enter the premises at any time by day or night and by force if necessary. During such searches, MyCC officers may seize any record, book, account, document, computerised data or other evidence of infringement.
The powers extend to the search of persons on the premises, and there is no distinction in the powers for business or residential premises. Where it is impractical to seize the evidence, the MyCC may seal the evidence to safeguard it. Attempts to break or tamper with the seal constitute an offence.
Where the MyCC officer has reasonable cause to believe that any delay in obtaining a warrant would adversely affect the investigation or the evidence will be damaged or destroyed, he or she may enter the premises and exercise the above powers without a warrant.
In addition to powers under the Act, MyCC investigating officers have the powers of a police officer as provided for under the Criminal Procedure Code.Private enforcement
To what extent is private enforcement possible? Can non-parties to agreements containing vertical restraints obtain declaratory judgments or injunctions and bring damages claims? Can the parties to agreements themselves bring damages claims? What remedies are available? How long should a company expect a private enforcement action to take?
Yes, any person who suffers loss or damage directly as a result of an infringement of the Act may bring a private action against the infringing parties in the civil courts. MyCC cannot award damages, and any follow-on action is intended to enable aggrieved persons to obtain compensation.
Such civil action may be initiated even if MyCC has not conducted or concluded an investigation into the alleged infringement. However, in practice, the evidential burden on private parties makes this unlikely unless MyCC’s investigation and adjudication process is slow.
Class actions are not possible in Malaysia. The only form of group litigation possible is representative actions. However, it would be necessary for parties to establish that they have suffered direct loss and a commonality of interest in bringing the claim.
Civil cases can be as quick as 12 months, but this depends on the complexity of the issues, and the successful party can recover costs.