The shortfall for 2012 ended up being $104 million. When the state came to collect, though, a battle erupted over who was required to contribute to the missing $104 million. It began with a lawsuit filed after the passage of I-1183, where a number of retailers argued that they should not be required to pay the 10% license fee even if they act as distributors to themselves. A court ruled against them in Washington Restaurant Association v. Washington State Liquor Control Board. Court’s Opinion, No. 12-2-013125 (Apr. 29, 2013). These entities included businesses like Costco Wholesale Corporation, whose business model operates by its acting as a distributor and retailer (and who was a very active supporter of I-1183).