On 29 May 2013, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) held a seminar discussing the potential issues in setting up an antimonopoly immunity scheme under the Chinese Antimonopoly Law (AML) for airline companies. The authorities said that the immunity programs, when managed appropriately, can lead to pro-competitive developments in industry structure and consumer benefits in the form of improved services and price reductions. It is thought that such a block exemption may be needed so as to allow closer cooperation between airlines in relation to domestic and international routes.