For the past several months, parties have gathered before the California State Water Resources Control Board to consider an application by the California Department of Water Resources and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation that would authorize the first large-scale water infrastructure improvements to be built since the 1960s. While the state's population has more than doubled, water system improvements have proven inadequate to meet the growing demand. Due to increased regulation and more frequent droughts, the state and federal water purveyors have been unable to meet the needs of almost 20 million Californians and millions of acres of prime agricultural land. To provide greater water supply reliability, the state is proposing to build two 30-foot-diameter tunnels with a capacity of 9,000 cubic feet per second to move water from the wet northern portion of the state to the San Francisco Bay Area, San Joaquin Valley and southern California. The Water Board has now completed receiving the direct testimony of more than 40 parties, some who favor the proposal and others who are opposed. After a short break, the Water Board will continue the hearings to allow the respective sides to rebut one another's cases. This first phase is focused on injury to water users. A second phase that will address environmental impacts will take place in 2017.