In ACA International v. Federal Communications Commission, 2018 U.S. App. LEXIS 6535 (2018), the DC Circuit rejected a series of challenges to the FCC’s 2015 Declaratory Ruling brought by Rite-Aid related to the partial-exemption to the prior-consent requirement for healthcare related calls. The Court rejected two separate arguments: first, that the Declaratory Ruling conflicts with HIPPA; and second, that the Declaratory Ruling’s exemption for “certain healthcare calls” but not others was arbitrary and capricious.
Declaratory Ruling’s Partial Exemption for Healthcare Related Calls
The TCPA contains a prior-consent requirement for calls to wireless numbers, but permits the FCC to exempt from that requirement “calls to a telephone number assigned to a cellular telephone service that are not charged to the called party, subject to such conditions as the [FCC] may prescribe as necessary in the interest of the privacy rights this section is intended to protect.” 47 U.S.C. § 227(b)(2)(C).
During the rulemaking process which resulted in the Declaratory Ruling, the FCC was petitioned to exempt from the prior-consent requirement “certain non-telemarketing, healthcare calls” alleged to “provide vital, time-sensitive information patients welcome, expect, and often rely on to make informed decisions.” While the FCC found that calls “regarding post-discharge follow-up intended to prevent readmission, or prescription notifications” were in the public interest – and chose to exempt them from the prior-consent requirement – the FCC “fail[ed] to see the same exigency and public interest in calls regarding account communications and payment notifications.” It therefore did not exempt those calls from the TCPA’s prior-consent requirement. It was this partial exemption, which did not include exemptions for billing and payment notifications, that was challenged and ultimately upheld by the Court.
Conflict between Declaratory Ruling and HIPPA
In ACA International, Rite Aid first contended that by “restricting otherwise permissible HIPPA communications,” the Declaratory Ruling conflicts with another federal law. Under HIPAA regulations, covered entities and their business associates presumptively “may not use or disclose protected health information,” 45 C.F.R. § 164.502(a), but they are generally permitted to use or disclose that information “for treatment, payment, or health care operations.” Id. § 164.506(a).
At the DC Circuit, Rite Aid argued that that the partial exemption conflicts with HIPAA because it stops short of exempting billing- and account-related communications—i.e., ones “for . . . payment” and therefore conflicted with 45 C.F.R. § 164.506(a). The Court did not agree, and reasoned that while § 164.506(a)’s exclusion carves out an exception to civil and criminal liability for using or disclosing protected health information, it says nothing about the FCC’s “authority to exempt (or refrain from exempting) certain kinds of calls from the TCPA’s consent requirement.” Therefore, the Court held, “the [FCC] did not restrict communications that HIPAA requires be permitted to flow freely. It simply declined to make certain exchanges even less burdensome than they would have been by default.”
Whether the Partial Exemption is Arbitrary and Capricious
Rite Aid also contended that the Declaratory Ruling’s partial exemption for certain healthcare related calls, but not others, was arbitrary and capricious. Rite Aid made two arbitrary and capricious arguments.
First, Rite Aid argued that the FCC had failed to explain the reason for its departure from its earlier practice of exempting all HIPPA-protected communications to landlines from TCPA’s regulations. The Court recognized that in a 2012 Order, the FCC exempted all “health care message[s]” to residential numbers – including messages related to billing – from the TCPA’s requirements because such messages were “already regulated by” HIPPA. The Court also acknowledged that the 2012 Order “swept more broadly than” the 2015 Declaratory Ruling’s partial exemption.
However, the Court refused to find the differing treatment regarding residential and wireless numbers to be arbitrary and capricious, holding that “[e]ven if one might hypothesize important reasons for treating residential and wireless telephone lines the same, the TCPA itself presupposes the contrary—that calls to residential and wireless numbers warrant differential treatment.”
Rite Aid also challenged the partial exemption as arbitrary and capricious because it failed to “recognize that all healthcare-related calls satisfy the TCPA’s ‘emergency purposes’ exception to the consent requirement.” As used in the TCPA, “[t]he term emergency purposes means calls made necessary in any situation affecting the health and safety of consumers.” 47 C.F.R. § 64.1200(f)(4). Rejecting this challenge, the Court held that Rite Aid had identified “no calls satisfying that exception that were not already subject to the 2015 exemption.” The Court also found that it would be “implausible” to conclude that calls concerning telemarking, solicitation, or advertising content, or which include accounting, billing, debt-collection, or other financial content are made for emergency purposes.