BREVE COMPARATIVA INTERNACIONAL SOBRE “GENDER PAY GAP” A LA VISTA DEL POSIBLE REAL DECRETO LEY SOBRE IGUALDAD EN ESPAÑA
En los últimos días se ha hecho público que se aprobará un Real Decreto-Ley RDL que tiene por objetivo garantizar la igualdad de trato y de oportunidades entre mujeres y hombres en el empleo. El texto del RDL que ha trascendido introduce importantes modificaciones en diversas materias, entre las que destacamos las relativas a la igualdad retributiva y la transparencia salarial. A este respecto, ¿qué han hecho otros países para controlar la brecha salarial (el “pay gap”) entre hombres y mujeres?El problema de la brecha salarial se revela como un problema global y así lo describe el World Economic Forum en su Global Gender Gap Report de 2018. A continuación, recogemos una comparativa internacional de las iniciativas existentes en los países de nuestro entorno y algunos aspectos que nos parecen destacables.
|Germany||Transparency Law of 2017||Yes> 500 workers||The individual right to information on remuneration consisting of the median salary in companies with more than 200 workers is recognized. For data protection, only such information is disclosed when comparable groups have at least 6 employees. Companies with more than 500 workers have to report on their salary structure and parity to all employees.|
|France||Policies not embodied in a Law, approved by the Minister of Labor||Yes> 250 workers (> 50 since 2020)||Principle of equal salary for work of equal value.
There is a mandatory software project for companies. The salary data are made available to union delegates. In case the salary gap is not resolved in a period of 3 years, it is sanctioned by the Labor Inspectorate.
|Ireland||Law of Equality in the Work of 1998 (updated in 2016)||Yes> 250 workers||Companies will be forced to publish information about the gender pay gap. Information required: differences in bonuses, salaries for split working days and the salaries of men and women.|
|Iceland||Law of Equality between Men and Women||Yes> 25 workers||Companies must show that they pay an identical salary to men and women. Audits are carried out by the Government, with the possibility of sanctions. A "Certificate of Equal Pay" is required.|
|Luxembourg||Policies not embodied in a Law, approved by the Ministry of Equal Opportunities||Yes> 50 workers (private sector)||Free self-evaluation software, "Logib-Lux". Identify the causes of possible wage inequalities. A guide on equal pay supports companies with less than 50 employees in their activity in view of equal pay.|
|UK||Equality Act of 2010, on information on the gender wage gap||Yes> 250 workers||Companies are obliged to publish their salary data due to gender. The data must be delivered to the Government, under penalty for non-compliance. Companies are required to communicate the data to their employees.|
This comparison highlights some of the legal challenges of this issue. Among others, the coexistence of transparency and information rights with the protection of personal data; the need for control by governments through audits or the possibility of these audits being conducted privately; the definition of what is work of equal value; and the coordination of these policies with the mercantile norm of non-financial information or good governance. We will have to see what solutions the possible new Spanish norm proposes.