In order to adapt to the needs of new market development and change, and to better improve China's patent protection system, the State Intellectual Property Office launched the fourth comprehensive revision of the patent law in 2014. After review, it formed the patent of the People's Republic of China. Law (Amendment Draft).

我国现行专利法经1984年3月12日第六届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第四次会议通过,在此次修改前根据1992年9月4日第七届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十七次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国专利法〉的决定》进行了第一次修正;根据2000年8月25日第九届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十七次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国专利法〉的决定》进行了第二次修正;根据2008年12月27日第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第六次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国专利法〉的决定》进行了第三次修正。

草案已提交全国人大审议表决,并于2月完成了公开征求意见工作,2019年内或可通过。为帮助您更好地了解专利法改法的重要变化,更好地服务于专利申请、保护等需求,我们特对相关内容及程序进行简要整理、说明。

对职务发明相关规定进行调整

1. 修订的《专利法》新增规定,明确了“单位”:

1) 对职务发明创造申请专利的权利和专利权可以依法处置;

2) 可以实行产权激励,采取股权、期权、分红等方式,使发明人或者设计人合理分享创新收益,促进相关发明创造的实施和运用。

【修改法条,第六条:丰富了职务发明奖励的方式】

明示了诚实信用原则

修订的《专利法》新增规定,明确了申请专利和行使专利权应当遵循诚实信用原则。不得滥用专利权损害公共利益和他人合法权益或者排除、限制竞争。

【新增法条,第二十条:从法理上明确了专利权作为一种无形财产权,尽管具有类似物权的性质,但并非授予专利权人“垄断”的地位,对专利进行保护旨在鼓励发明创造,推动社会发展,而非破坏正常市场经济秩序或他人合法权益,因此必须遵循民法“诚实信用”的基本原则,本着善良的心态行使权利。】

明确了专利行政部门信息公开及促进专利实施和运用的职责

1. 修订的《专利法》特别增强了专利行政部门建设专利信息公共服务体系的职能,在旧有规定基础上,规定其应当“提供专利信息基础数据”以“促进专利信息传播与利用”。

【修改法条,第二十一条】

2. 修订的《专利法》在第六章“专利实施的特别许可”下特别增加了条款,规定“国务院专利行政部门、地方人民政府管理专利工作的部门应当会同同级相关部门采取措施,加强专利公共服务,促进专利实施和运用”。

【新增法条,第四十八条】

专利实施、知识产权转化是实现发明创造价值、推动科技发展、创造经济增长点的重要手段。除了专利权人、知识产权孵化公司使劲儿以外,国家专利行政部门也需要提供便利,实现更大程度的“信息公开”,方便公众查询。

增加专利不授权主题

修订的《专利法》除原有的“用原子核变换方法获得的物质”外,将“原子核变换方法”本身列为不授予专利权的主题。

【修改法条,第二十五条:除获得的物质外,原子核变换方法也涉及重要的国家安全利益,使用法条的方式加以明确,有利于维护国家权益。】

允许外观设计专利申请享有国内优先权

修订的《专利法》允许在中国第一次提出的专利申请,自申请日起六个月内又向国务院专利行政部门就相同主题提出专利申请的,可以享有优先权。

【修改法条,第二十九条:只要不出现重复授权问题,给予外观设计与发明、实用新型同等的“地位”也是合理的。这样也给予了申请人更多的选择余地,不至于“一锤定音”,万一递交的外观设计专利申请存在一定的瑕疵,还可以通过要求优先权来予以克服,不至于损失优先权日带来的对新颖性的保护。】

延长了提交专利申请文件副本的时间

修订的《专利法》中对要求优先权的申请提交在先申请文件副本的时间进行了放宽,除外观设计专利申请仍维持“申请之日三个月内”的标准外,发明、实用新型专利申请调整为“在第一次提出发明、实用新型专利申请之日起十六个月内”。(应解释为有优先权的自优先权日起)

【修改法条,第三十条:现在跨国申请专利的情形日益增多,要求外国优先权也已“司空见惯”,尽管已经有诸如DAS、优先权传送等方式可以快捷获取优证文本,但仍有不少国家需要单独办理纸质文件。各国对于办理优先权证明文件副本的时间要求不尽相同,如果中国仅给予申请人3个月的时间提交相关证明材料,有时可能无法按时获取,因此更为宽松的提交时间,也是为申请人带来更多便利。此规定与目前主要国家的规定基本相同。】

专利保护期调整

1. 修订的《专利法》调整了外观设计专利权的保护期为“自申请日起算十五年”。

2. 为适应创新药品的上市审批时间上的需要,更周全的保护专利药品,设置了专门的补偿制度,“为补偿创新药品上市审评审批时间,对在中国境内与境外同步申请上市的创新药品发明专利,国务院可以决定延长专利权期限,延长期限不超过五年,创新药上市后总有效专利权期限不超过十四年。”

【修改法条,第四十二条,并增加第二款:外观设计保护期的调整是为了与《海牙协议》规定保持一致,调整后发明专利保护期20年,实用新型专利保护期10年,外观设计保护期15年。而对创新药品的保护期延长的制度设计,是充分考虑到创新药品上市审查耗费的时间,即在此期间内专利权人虽然获得了专利权,但并不能上市销售、产生经济价值,“保护真空”。因此适当准予延长保护期可以更好地帮助专利权人实现创新药品专利的价值,鼓励创新药的研制,造福于百姓人身健康。当然延长也不是毫无限度的,上市后不超过14年的限制也在实质上尽量确保不会“超期保护”。】

许可制度调整

修订的《专利法》对专利实施许可制度进行了调整,将第六章由“专利实施的强制许可”调整为“专利实施的特别许可”。将原专利法第十四条,即对“国有企业事业单位的发明专利的推广应用”的规定移至第四十九条,当做一种特殊许可制度。同时,在原有强制许可制度外,新增一种许可制度——开放许可,其特点在于:

1. 申请(要约)

1) 专利权人需以书面方式声明愿意许可任何单位或者个人实施其专利,并明确许可使用费支付方式、标准;

2) 对实用新型、外观设计专利提出开放许可声明的,应当提供专利权评价报告;

3) 符合要求的,国务院专利行政部门予以公告,实行开放许可;

4) 限制:开放许可期间,专利权人不得就该专利给予独占或者排他许可。

2. 实施(承诺)—— 任何单位或者个人有意愿实施开放许可的专利的

1) 以书面方式通知专利权人;

2) 依照公告的许可使用费支付方式、标准支付许可使用费。

3. 撤回

1) 书面方式提出撤回声明;

2) 国务院专利行政部门予以公告;

3) 效力:开放许可声明被公告撤回的,不影响在先给予的开放许可的效力。

4. 纠纷解决:可以请求国务院专利行政部门进行调解。

【新增法条,第五十、五十一、五十二条:调整后我国的特殊许可方式变更为了3种,① 对国有企事业单位发明专利的“指定许可”;② 新增的“开放许可”;③ “强制许可”。新增的开放许可制度充分体现了民法“意思自治”的理念,相当于以行政机关公示为平台,专利权人实施了要约,买受人只要书面通知并实际履行要约中条件,即可获得许可,让交易快捷高效。】

专利侵权相关规定调整

1. 实用新型专利或外观设计专利侵权纠纷中,专利权评价报告可由双方当事人主动出具,不再单纯依赖人民法院或者管理专利工作的部门要求。

【修改法条,现第六十六条,原第六十一条:把出具专利权评价报告的权利交给双方当事人,可以鼓励大家积极举证,有利于推进诉讼进程。】

2. 新设“负责专利执法的部门”,将涉嫌侵犯专利权、假冒专利行为的处理、查处职权交由其负责;

【修改法条,现第六十九条,原第六十四条】

3. 进一步加大侵犯专利权的罚款力度并加重了侵权人的举证责任:

侵权行为 违法程度 原罚款/赔偿金额 现罚款/赔偿金额

假冒专利 有违法所得 违法所得四倍以下 违法所得五倍以下

无违法所得 二十万元以下 二十五万元以下

违法所得在五万元以下(新增) 二十五万元以下

故意侵犯专利权(新增) 情节严重 普通罚则:实际损失 或 侵权所获利益 或 按许可使用费的倍数合理确定 以及 制止侵权行为支付的合理开支 普通罚则确定数额的一倍以上五倍以下

Ordinary penalty base is difficult to determine more than 10,000 yuan and less than 1 million yuan less than 100,000 yuan and less than 5 million yuan

The burden of proof of the amount of compensation clearly stipulates that: in order to determine the amount of compensation, the people’s court may try to provide evidence when the right holder has tried to provide evidence. If the books and materials related to the infringement are mainly controlled by the infringer, the infringer may be ordered to provide the infringement. The books and materials; if the infringer does not provide or provide false books and information, the people's court may determine the amount of compensation with reference to the claim of the right holder and the evidence provided.

[Modify the law, now Article 68, former Article 63; now Article 72, former Article 65; Addition of 72 Article 4: Increased the infringement of patent rights The punishment of behavior and the increase of the burden of proof of the infringer are conducive to protecting the legitimate rights and interests of the patentee and avoiding the difficulty of obtaining reasonable compensation and making up for the losses caused by the infringement. 】

4. Further clarify the jurisdiction of the patent administration department of the State Council and the local people's government on patent infringement disputes:

The patent administration department under the State Council may, at the request of the patentee or interested party, handle patent infringement disputes that have significant influence throughout the country.

The department that manages the patent work of the local people's government shall request the patentee or the interested party to handle the patent infringement dispute, and the cases in which the same patent right is infringed in the administrative region may be combined; the case of infringing the same patent right across regions may be Request the department of the higher-level people's government to manage the patent work.

[Additional Law, Article 70]

5. In view of the prevailing status of network infringement, the obligations of network service providers are specified:

The patentee or interested party may notify the network service provider to delete, block or disconnect the infringing product based on the judgment, ruling, mediation, or the department that manages the patent work issued by the people's court. And other necessary measures. If the network service provider fails to take necessary measures in time after receiving the notice, the expanded part of the damage shall be jointly and severally liable to the infringing network user.

After the department responsible for patent law enforcement has ordered the correction of the counterfeit patent, it may notify the network service provider to take necessary measures such as deleting, blocking, and disconnecting the counterfeit patent product. The network service provider shall take the necessary measures in time after receiving the notice.

[Additional Law, Article 71: With the development of the Internet, infringement has long been confined to the real economy. The spread of the network has made the scope of the infringement wider and wider, and the severity of the infringement is more serious. How to eliminate the impact of Internet means is also the main direction of rights holders. This time, the responsibility of the network service provider has been clearly stipulated. If the negative is not done, it will bear joint and several liability, and jointly compensate the infringer for the loss of the patentee. This means that in this case, the patentee can directly ask the network service provider to fully compensate for the increased losses. As for how to recover from the infringer or share the responsibility, the patentee does not need to worry about it. Such regulations are also conducive to urging network service providers to actively review and release information and assume the necessary audit obligations. 】

6. The time limit for infringement of patent rights is clearly “three years”.

[Modification of the law, now Article 75, former Article 68]

Compared with the original patent law, the revised Patent Law is more “internationalized”, and the design protection period is in line with the Hague Agreement; the special extension of the application for the copy of the prior application documents and the period of innovative drug protection facilitates the application. People, thoughtfully consider the characteristics of drug listing, and also harmonize with the provisions of major patent powers. In order to better punish the patent infringement, safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of the patentee, increase the infringement compensation and punishment, and transfer the burden of proof to the infringer. In particular, it has increased the necessary measures for network service providers to eliminate infringements and influences, and the joint responsibility for inaction.

Through the revision of the law, we can clearly feel the power of "advance with the times" and feel the impact of social development, economic construction, and the needs of the people on legislation.