Michael O'Rourke accumulated several thousand dollars of debt on his credit card but never paid it. In fact, he assumed the statute of limitations barred any payment obligations. So, when lawyers for Palisades Acquisition XVI, the debt's owner, sent him a collection notice, he ignored it. Palisades filed suit in state court and attached an exhibit that appeared to be, but was not, a credit card bill issued by Palisades to O'Rourke. Palisades eventually dismissed the state court case. O'Rourke brought suit against Palisades in federal court, alleging that the exhibit violated the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act. His theory was that Palisades included the exhibit in order to mislead the state court judge into thinking that it was an accurate statement of the actual debt. Judge Norgle (N.D. Ill.) granted summary judgment to Palisades. O’Rourke appeals.

In their opinion, Judges Flaum, Manion, and Tinder (concurring in the result) affirmed. The Court stated that the Act prohibits both the false representation of a debt's "character, amount, or legal status" and the use of deceptive means to collect a debt. On its face, the Act does not say whether it includes statements made to a state court judge. The Court concluded that it did not. The Act is intended to protect consumers. Courts have extended its protection to third parties only when there is a special relationship (e.g., attorney, executrix) with a consumer. The Court held that the Act only applies to statements directed to consumers, and those with a special relationship to a consumer. Since a state court judge is an impartial decision-maker, the exhibit is not a covered communication.

Judge Tinder concurred in the result but disagreed with the Court’s rationale. He noted that the language of the Act is quite expansive, that its goal is to reduce abusive debt collection practices, and that state judges are powerful participants in the debt collection process. Why, then, should a false and misleading court submission not be a violation of the Act? Judge Tinder did not answer that question because he did not believe it necessary or prudent. Even assuming that the Act applies to communications to judges, O'Rourke loses. Because the exhibit was not misleading on its face, O'Rourke was required to submit extrinsic evidence. Although he submitted an expert report, the trial court excluded it. Without any extrinsic evidence, O'Rourke is unable to establish a genuine issue of material fact and summary judgment for Palisades was proper.