EU law protects consumers and professionals involved in commercial, industrial, handicraft or freelance activity against misleading advertising and its unfair consequences – Ruling C-52/13, CJEU of 13 March 2014

As regards the protection of professionals, Directive 2006/114/EC of 12 December 2006 refers to misleading advertising and unlawful comparative advertising as two separate infringements.

To prohibit and penalise misleading advertising, it is not necessary for such advertising to simultaneously constitute unlawful comparative advertising.