On 5 November 2015, the Irish Court of Appeal issued its judgment in the case of Gill Russell v HSE (2015/49). The decision related to the real rate of return (RRR) or 'discount rate' (an assumed investment return rate) applied to the lump sum damages in catastrophic injury cases; which had been set at 3% since 2003.  The Court of Appeal affirmed the High Court's decision to reduce the RRR applied to between 1% and 1.5%. Insurers can now expect to pay out higher lump sum damages in a wide range of injury, medical negligence and loss of earnings cases.