A trade group representing urologist-owned companies that provide laser surgery and other services “under arrangement” to hospitals filed suit in federal court on March 23, 2009 challenging the provisions of the Stark regulations addressing “per-click” leases, “under-arrangement” transactions, and the characterization of technical services attendant to laser surgery and other therapeutic procedures as hospital outpatient services when done “under arrangement” with a hospital. Council for Urological Interests v. Johnson, No. 1:09-cv- 00546-HHK (D.D.C. March 23, 2009). This case is currently pending before the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. In its complaint, the plaintiff asserts that the court has jurisdiction under three separate provisions of federal law, two of which were specifically rejected by the same court in the Colorado Heart Institute case.