The European Commission has adopted its fifth report on citizenship of the European Union. The majority of EU citizens claim familiarity with the term “citizen of the European Union” and know that they are simultaneously Union citizens and Member State nationals. Less well-known are their rights as citizens. These include: the right to move and reside within the European Union; the right to vote and stand as a candidate in European Parliament and municipal elections in their country of residence; the right to protection in third countries by any EU Member State diplomatic and consular authority; the right to petition the European Parliament; and the right to apply to the Ombudsman. The report investigates to what extent each of these aspects of citizenship has been applied during the period May 2004 to June 2007. It also evaluates advances in areas closely related to citizenship including equal treatment in terms of nationality and the protection of fundamental rights.