On December 20, the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) added two Russian companies to its Entity List because they provided technology which aided the development of a new Russian cruise missile—the nuclear-capable Novator 9M729 missile (designated by NATO as the SSC-8)—which the U.S. alleges is a violation of the 1987 Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF).

BIS’s action is part of the new Trump Administration INF Treaty Integrated Strategy. It states, “While the United States will continue to pursue a diplomatic solution, we are now pursuing economic and military measures intended to induce the Russian Federation to return to compliance.” In addition to the first BIS designations related to alleged INF treaty violations, the U.S. is beginning research and development on its own new nuclear cruise missile, an action that Russia is alleging represents a separate violation of the INF Treaty.

The two designated parties are: (1) Joint Stock Company Experimental Design Bureau Novator; and (2) Joint Stock Company Federal Scientific and Production Center Titan-Barrikady.