On January 25, 2007, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) dismissed appeals from four steel companies – Sumitomo Metal Industries, Nippon Steel, Dalmine SpA and Salzgitter Mannesmann – against a decision by the European Court of First Instance (CFI) penalizing them for participation in a cartel. The case dates back to December 1999 when the European Commission imposed fines totalling €99 million on eight European and Japanese producers of seamless steel tubes for market sharing. Seven companies appealed to the CFI, which in July 2004 confirmed the substance of the Commission’s ruling but reduced the fines by €13 million as it considered that the Commission had insufficient evidence of the duration of the infringement. Four of the steel producers went on to appeal the CFI’s judgment before the ECJ which endorsed the CFI’s judgment and upheld the €45.27 million fine imposed on the four companies.