Defence procurement law fundamentals

Mandatory procurement clauses

Are there mandatory procurement clauses that must be included in a defence procurement contract or that will be read into the contract regardless of their actual inclusion?

There are no procurement clauses that must be included in a defence contract or that will be necessarily implied. However, there are a great number of varying standard terms and conditions and legal regulations that are commonly included in the contract by the contracting authority. In all cases, public contracts are also subject to the price control provisions of Price Regulation No. 30/53, which contains binding rules on the pricing of public contracts.

Cost allocation

How are costs allocated between the contractor and government within a contract?

Where contracts are awarded on the basis of a competitive procedure, the contracts in question generally contain fixed prices or a mix of fixed and variable price elements. Cost accounting elements can also be included. In the case of contracts that have been awarded without competitive procedures, most contracts contain cost-oriented fixed prices or extra cost prices, and the distribution of costs between the contractor and the state depends on individual agreements. The actual distribution of costs between the contractor and the state in these cases depends on the individual agreement.


What disclosures must the contractor make regarding its cost and pricing?

To verify that prices are reasonable, contracting authorities may require tenderers to explain their prices during the award procedure and during price controls and sometimes many years after the contract has been fulfilled.


How are audits of defence and security procurements conducted in this jurisdiction?

The Ministry of Defence reviews procurements for the military. On the other hand, in the case of non-military procurements, audits are the responsibility of the supervisory authority, (ie, usually the Ministry of the Interior). The relevant ministry also reviews procurements at ministerial level in internal audits. In other situations, the Federal Audit Office or the competent State Audit Office is responsible for audits.

IP rights

Who gets the ownership rights to intellectual property created during performance of the contract? What licences are typically given and how?

The ownership of intellectual property rights are individually governed by the contracts.

Economic zones

Are there economic zones or other special programmes in this jurisdiction commonly utilised by foreign defence and security contractors for financial or other procurement related benefits?

We are not aware of any such economic zones or programmes in Germany.

Forming legal entities

Describe the process for forming legal entities, including joint ventures, in this jurisdiction.

The limited liability company (GmbH) represents the most common form of commercial legal personality. A notarial shareholder agreement is a prerequisite for the formation of a GmbH, whereby the notary must verify the identity of the shareholders by means of valid identification documents at the time the agreement is notarised. Furthermore, the minimum share capital of a GmbH is €25,000 and the company must be registered in the commercial register. The entry in the commercial register requires the confirmation of the managing director to the effect that the share capital to be contributed by the shareholders is available to the company. This is usually combined with an account statement as proof. A list of shareholders signed by the managing director must also be submitted with the application for registration.

The Civil Code Partnership is a simple partnership based on the provisions of the German Civil Code and the simplest form of company under German law. It can be described as a simple and practical instrument suitable for temporary joint ventures, in particular for tenders or as an intermediate step in the formation of a permanent joint venture structure. There are no formal prerequisites for its formation. Furthermore, neither capital nor registration is required.

Access to government records

Are there statutes or regulations enabling access to copies of government records? How does it work? Can one obtain versions of previous contracts?

As a rule, government contracts are not published or passed on to third parties. However, everyone (including foreigners) has a right of access to official information held by public authorities under the Freedom of Information Act of the Federation and the states. It is generally believed that this should include records of previous procedures for awarding public contracts, including previous contracts. However, access may be denied, among other things, in cases where disclosure could prejudice international relations, the military, public safety or other security interests or to protect classified information and other official secrets or trade secrets (including confidential information and intellectual property rights of third parties). The disclosure of past government contracts will often be barred by one of these exemptions.

Supply chain management

What are the rules regarding eligible suppliers and supply chain management and anti-counterfeit parts for defence and security procurements?

There are no special defence and security procurement-related rules regarding eligible suppliers, supply chain management and anti-counterfeit parts.

Economic operators will be considered eligible to participate in public procurement procedures if they meet the eligibility criteria named by the tendering authority in the tender notice. Eligibility criteria in accordance with EU and national regulations may include requirements of professional suitability, financial and economic standing and technical or professional ability and certain compliance self-declarations. All criteria must be connected with the tendered goods, services or construction work. If the tendering procedure or the contract requires access to classified information in accordance with the German Security Clearance Act bidders must also fulfil certain security requirements.

Regulations on supply-chain management (especially commitments by the contractor to ensure the security of supply for the duration of the contract and even in the event of a crisis or war) are included on a case-by-case basis in the tendering authorities’ standard terms and conditions.