On March 1, 2016, the FTC issued a ruling stating that, under Article 14 of the Fair Trade Act, where the total market share of enterprises participating in a concerted action does not reach 10%, it is presumed that the concerted action has no impact on market functions with regard to production, trade in goods, or supply and demand of services. This presumption is not applicable if a concerted action of enterprises seeks to restrict the price, quantity, trading counterpart or trading territory of goods or services.