On July 17, 2015, the CRS issued a report providing an overview of the recent OPM breaches. The report discusses the alleged source of the breaches, potential uses of the stolen information, national security ramifications, and the implications of the breach for the cybersecurity of federal information systems. On September 8, 2015, the CRS also issued a report on the EMV Chip Card Transition (EMV cards are named for the coalition of Europay, MasterCard, and Visa that developed the specifications for the system). The report describes the financial harm and causes of data breaches, the effect of the EMV transition in certain foreign countries, outstanding issues concerning the transition in the United States, and areas of potential congressional interest. October 1, 2015, is the industry imposed deadline for transitioning to chip cards, which provide greater security than the old magnetic stripe cards, and after that date the liability for fraudulent transactions as between the card issuer and the merchant will shift to the merchant if the merchant has not switched to this technology.