The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has issued a guidance document titled "Current Strategies for Engineering Controls in Nanomaterial Production and Downstream Handling Processes." According to NIOSH Director John Howard, "These recommendations represent the kind of science-based guidance that our partners have requested, as a vital component for supporting the safe growth of nanotechnology and U.S. leadership in the global market." The guidance favors the use of engineering controls over administrative controls and personal protective equipment, "because they are designed to remove the hazard at the source, before it comes into contact with the worker." See NIOSH News Release, November 8, 2013.