In this case (Doe v Guthrie Clinic, Ltd, March 25, 2013), the Second Circuit Court of Appeals (covering New York, Connecticut and Vermont) is asking New York's highest court to determine whether the common law permits a medical corporation to be sued for a breach of the fiduciary duty of confidentiality concerning patient medical records when a non-physician employee makes an unauthorized disclosure of those records. The position the New York Court of Appeals takes will be watched closely by health care providers across the Empire State as the requirements for securing patient data continue to tighten with, among other things, the final HIPAA regulations being issued under HITECH this past January.

Here, Doe (patient) sued Guthrie Clinic because one of the clinic's nurses (and sister-in-law of Doe's girlfriend) texted Doe's girlfriend about Doe's treatment for a sexually transmitted disease (STD). All of the patient's claims, including a claim for common law breach of fiduciary duty to maintain the confidentiality of personal health information, were dismissed by the lower court. Doe appealed the dismissal to the Second Circuit. 

The federal appellate court reversed the dismissal of the fiduciary breach claim, noting that New York courts have not addressed this situation. That is, there are no decisions in New York that specifically address whether a medical practice could be liable under a breach of fiduciary duty theory when its non-physician employee wrongfully discloses confidential medical information. Employers in New York generally are liable for the foreseeable actions of their employees which are within the scope of employment, but usually not when those actions are driven by personal reasons of the employee.

Under the facts in this case, New York's high court may find no cause of action exists, leaving patients/plaintiffs with one less avenue to sue. The risks and exposures remain, however, for health care providers who will incur significant costs defending these actions in court and addressing complaints before state and federal agencies. Strong policies and employee training  will not prevent patient claims and compliants, but they will help to put providers in a better position to defend their actions.