On 13 January 2015, the Code of Ethics of the National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità) was adopted and published. The Code is organized into five chapters:

Research Integrity: The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity has been fully transposed into the Institute’s Code; researchers, public and private research organizations, universities and organizations that fund research are all required to comply with the relevant principles.

Conflicts of Interest: The Code indicates the basic criteria to identify and confront any conflicts of interest, and calls, in the interests of transparency, for the declaration of the same, to ensure the integrity of professional judgment and preserve public confidence in the Institute.

Research on Human Subjects: The Code focuses on the value and validity of the research, on the need for a fair selection of subjects, on criteria for the identification of benefits and risks, on the need for independent review, on the indispensability of informed consent, and on the way potential and enrolled subjects should be treated.

Research and Public Health Interventions: The Code identifies principles on effectiveness, proportionality, necessity, information, consent, protection of personal data and respect for confidentiality, transparency, and how to balance these principles to preserve the rights of the community and individuals.

Animal Experimentation: Inspired by Directive 2010/63/UE on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes, enacted in Italy by Legislative Decree n. 26 of 4 March 2014, the Code is in favor of the “3Rs” Model (replacement, reduction, refinement) and original scientific research (i.e. minimum stress on the animal and non-duplication of existing research).