The Ontario Court of Appeal’s recent decision in Hydro One confirmed that the Superintendent may use a “subset analysis” when assessing the “significance” of plan member terminations for purposes of ordering a partial plan wind-up. The impact of this decision may be limited, however, if the amendments to the Ontario Pension Benefits Act (PBA) wind-up provisions included in Bill 236 are passed.
Currently, s. 69(1)(d) of the PBA gives the Superintendent the discretion to order a partial plan wind-up if a “significant” number of plan members are terminated as a result of a business reorganization. In the past, cases have held that the “significance” inquiry may be conducted on one or both of the following two bases: the absolute number of terminations or a percentage of the total number of active plan members. The Hydro One case considered a third scenario: whether the Superintendent can carry out the “significance” analysis based on the number of terminated members falling within a defined subset of plan members.
In Hydro One, there were different categories of plan members based on whether or not they were represented by unions. The absolute number of terminations was 73. As a percentage, the terminations represented 2% of the total plan membership (4000) and 18% of the category at issue. Based on the latter test, the Financial Services Tribunal held that the number of terminations was significant. (PDF) The Divisional Court upheld the Tribunal’s decision.
The Court of Appeal agreed with the Tribunal and the Divisional Court. Noting that the public policy and remedial objectives of the PBA require it to be given a “liberal interpretation”, and that the term “significant” is not defined under the PBA, the Court found that a flexible and contextual approach should be taken when assessing whether a “significant” number of plan members has been terminated, thereby triggering a partial wind-up order by the Superintendent. Not surprisingly, the Court concluded that a subset analysis was consistent with a the remedial nature of the PBA and the long line of authorities that have considered s. 69(1)(d).
The Hydro One case is likely one of the last disputes over the meaning of “significant” in s. 69(1)(d). The decision will continue to be relevant during the transition period while partial wind-ups are being phased out, but will ultimately be moot. (Under Bill 236, partial wind ups with an effective date prior to January 1, 2012 will be grandfathered, after which partial wind-ups will be eliminated.)
The elimination of partial wind-ups means that employers will no longer be required to distribute surplus out of the plan based on the test in s. 69(1)(d). However, the elimination of partial wind-ups is not a panacea. The trade off is that the other main benefit conferred on Ontario plan members by partial wind-ups – “grow in rights” – must in future be provided to all eligible involuntary terminations (other than for cause).