The DED and ESCA have entered into a memorandum of understanding in which they have agreed to co-operate on matters relating to the incorporation and regulation of joint stock companies in the UAE. In particular, the MOU provides that the DDED and ESCA will have linked IT systems to exchange information on annual general meetings of JSCs and to provide data on the issue of financial instruments, such as shares, bonds and sukuk. DDED will not issue a trade licence to a JSC until it has received approval from ESCA and it will also act to prevent a JSC from trading upon request from ESCA.