The most common employment form in Hungary is the so called 'typical' employment, that is for an indefinite period and full time (8 hours a day). Legislators have recognised the effectiveness and flexibility of other 'atypical' forms of employment and have collected these into a single chapter in the new Labour Code (they had been in separate chapters previously) and also created new atypical forms.
Three new atypical employment forms are included in the new Labour Code that entered into force on 1 July 2012, these are: call for work, job sharing and employee sharing.
The idea of call for work ("on-call"; "Arbeit auf Abruf") was taken from foreign legal systems which allow flexible and effective usage of working time. In this case, employers call part-time employees to work for 6 hours a day at most, according to the employment contract. The law requires the employer to inform the employee at least three days prior to the day of work. In the case of call for work, the employer may use a maximum four month reference period. This new opportunity may serve as a solution for mothers or jobseekers in cyclical or seasonal jobs, like payroll.
Job sharing is another new form of part-time employment. In this case, the employment contract is concluded between one employer and several employees for jointly carrying out a job. The new Labour Code prescribes that employees work according to a flexible working time schedule and wages are apportioned equally, unless otherwise agreed. Where any one of the employees to the contract is unable to carry out his/her duties, the other contracting employee must fill in and perform the duties as required. The employment relationship comes to an end when the number of employees is reduced to one.
The other type of job sharing is a unique employment form, namely "employee sharing". In this case, at least two employers agree an employment contract with one employee to carry out the duties of one job. The employment contract must clearly indicate which employer is responsible for paying the employee's salary. However, liability for any employee labour-related claims is joint and several, irrespective of who pays the salary. Unless otherwise agreed, employment may be terminated by the employee or any employer. Job sharing may reduce administrative burdens and may, for example, work where managers carry out the same tasks (eg. HR, IT tasks etc.) in various companies within a company group.
Special (atypical) employment forms had been under special regulation before, but they have been incorporated to the new Labour Code and now these are regulated under a single chapter (Chapter XV.) in the Code. Besides the three new atypical employment forms detailed above, the Labour Code also regulates previously existing types of employment, such as fixed term employment, teleworking, outworkers, simplified employment and occasional work relationships, employment relationship with public employers, agency work, executive employees and incapacitated workers.