Julian Jeffrey Messent, a reinsurance broker who was head of the Property Division (Americas) of PWS International Limited, a London-based reinsurance broker, was convicted in London in late 2010 of corruption offenses, stemming from his supervision of payments made to various Costa Rican governmental officials. The payments were found to be bribes meant to steer reinsurance placement for Costa Rican government-owned utility organizations to PWS. For his placement of the contracts, Messent received large incentive bonuses between 1999 and 2002 from PWS. After a new President of Costa Rica was elected in 2002, newly appointed Costa Rican officials discovered the improper payments, and both the Costa Rican and U.K. governments undertook criminal investigations which led to Messent’s arrest in 2007. Messent appealed his sentencing of 21 months each on two counts of corruption (to run concurrently), as well as a fine of £100,000. The convictions were affirmed on appeal, the court noting “there can be no doubt that corruption of foreign government officials . . . is at the top end of serious corporate offending both in terms of culpability and harm.” Regina v. Messent,  EWCA Crim 644 (Eng. Ct. App.).