VANCE v. RUMSFELD (August 8, 2011)
In 2005 and 2006, American citizens Donald Vance and Nathan Ertel were working for a privately owned security company in Iraq. They allege that: a) they came to believe that their employer was engaged in illegal activity, b) they reported their suspicions to the FBI, c) they continued to share information with American officials in Iraq, d) their employer became suspicious and confiscated their credentials, e) American officials "rescued" them and seized their personal property, and f) they were detained, physically and psychologically abused, tortured, treated inhumanely, and assaulted for weeks. They were never charged with a crime and were eventually released. Plaintiffs brought suit against former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and other, unidentified defendants. The complaint alleged unconstitutional inhumane treatment, denial of procedural due process, and denial of access to the courts. They also brought a claim against the United States for the return of their personal property. Judge Andersen (N.D. Ill.) dismissed the due process and access claims but refused to dismiss the inhumane treatment claim or the personal property claim. Rumsfeld appeals the inhumane treatment claim -- the United States appeals the personal property claim.
In their opinion, Seventh Circuit Judges Manion (concurring in part, dissenting in part), Evans, and Hamilton affirmed in part and reversed in part. The Court first addressed the Bivens claim against Rumsfeld. It identified three issues: whether there were adequate allegations of Rumsfeld's personal responsibility, whether Rumsfeld was entitled to qualified immunity, and whether a Bivens remedy is even available to a United States citizen in a war zone. First, the Court concluded that the complaint adequately alleged Rumsfeld's personal involvement and responsibility under Rule 8 and Iqbal and Twombly. The complaint alleged, among other things, that Rumsfeld approved a list of interrogation techniques contrary to the Army Field Manual, that he directed that those techniques be used in Iraq, that he was well aware of detainee abuse generally, that he took no action in response to the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act's directive to ensure that detainees were treated in a humane manner, that he continued to approve interrogation techniques not authorized by the Army Field Manual even after the Detainee Treatment Act's limitations of techniques to those authorized in the manual, and that he did not investigate or correct detainee abuse. The Court found that those allegations sufficiently alleged his personal involvement in the policies that led to plaintiffs’ torture and that he was deliberately indifferent to their mistreatment. The Court turned to the issue of qualified immunity and the Saucier two-step test. The Court had little difficulty in concluding that the alleged treatment, if true, "shocks the conscience" and violates substantive due process. In fact, Rumsfeld did not really argue otherwise. Likewise, the Court had little difficulty in concluding that a reasonable United States official would have known that the alleged treatment, if true, would amount to a constitutional violation. Finally, the Court turned to the central issue -- whether Bivens allows a suit for damages by a United States citizen alleging unconstitutional treatment occurring in a war zone. The Court applied the Supreme Court's two-step test: 1) is there a sufficient alternative remedy for the wrong and 2) do "special factors" weigh against recognizing the remedy. Finding no alternative remedy, it focused on the second step. In addressing in the second step, the Court emphasized that the complaint was not a broad challenge to the country’s interrogation or detention policies. It was, instead, a narrow claim for damages. The court found its key elements familiar: a) Bivens has been used by prisoners who have asserted abuse in federal prisons, b) Bivens has been used by civilians who have asserted violation of constitutional rights by military personnel, and c) Bivens has been used against high-ranking government officials, including cabinet members. The Court rejected the defendants’ arguments that a wartime or national security environment counsel against judicial intervention. Finally, the Court emphasized the fact that plaintiffs were United States citizens and distinguished a line of cases that concluded that Bivens did not provide a damages remedy to aliens. It ultimately concluded that there were no special factors standing in the way of a Bivens remedy. With respect to the personal property claim, the Court reversed the district court. It concluded that the "military authority" exception in the Administrative Procedure Act precludes judicial review.
Judge Manion concurred in the personal property portion of the majority's opinion but dissented from the Bivens portion. Judge Manion stated that special factors counsel against applying Bivens in this context and that the majority ignored precedent to that effect and, instead, extended the principle beyond where it has ever been applied. Judge Manion was particularly sensitive to the risks posed by the judiciary getting involved in matters of national security and wartime decisions.