A recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on sustainability recommends that EPA increase its use of analytical tools such as life-cycle assessments, cost-benefit analysis and reviews of social, environmental and economic effects of agency policies. According to the report, which EPA requested, the agency needs to institutionalize sustainability more broadly into its activities. It recommends that the agency shift procedures and make decisions based on risk assessments that include a policy’s potential social and economic impacts, and urges EPA to set three-to-five-year program goals for implementing a sustainability approach.